by johnah on November 8, 2020
Gorse Bush Facts – Tips On Gorse Control In Landscapes
The gorse (Urtica dioica) is a perennial grass with short life span. It grows from ground level to up to 30 feet high. Its leaves are opposite, longitudinally arranged, and 4 inches long at maturity; they become 1 inch wide and 5/8 inch thick at maturity. Leaves are alternate, but not parallel, and each leaf is divided into two leaflets. They have five petioles (leafstalks).
Each leaflet has four stamens (stalked filaments), which are used for photosynthesis. Flowers occur on the upper surface of the leaves in early spring or late summer. The flowers consist of a single white bract surrounded by several yellowish stigmas (seeds). The flowers contain no nectar or pollen.
The plant produces its seeds in clusters called pods. Each pod contains between 20 and 40 seeds. Seeds germinate within 24 hours after being placed under light. After germination, the seedlings grow slowly until they reach full size in 2 years, then they begin to spread rapidly and produce their own seeds within 3 years.
It is a widespread invasive plant, which has been naturalized in many parts of the world. It was introduced into new areas as an ornamental plant or for erosion control. It has no natural enemies in North America, so it can thrive without any controls. They are still used for erosion control and livestock fodder. Hay can be made from the plant.
Gorse seedlings are very difficult to control because of their small size and thick covering, which protects them from herbicides. Gorse is a deep-rooted plant that regenerate shoots from uncut stumps. They are very fire-resistant and can continue growing after fire. They can also spread vegetatively and produce large numbers of seeds. Gorse is usually cut several times during the year to stop it from invading new areas.
The gorse plant has several uses; it is used as a fuel in some parts of the world. All parts of the plant are considered useful however only the roots and the shoots are used extensively. It is also used for making alcoholic beverages, flavoring and colorant for food, and tanning agent for leather. The flowers produce a yellow dye. The shoots provide good quality material suitable for furniture and tool handles.
The gorse plant has several uses in folk medicine. The flowers are used for treating diarrhea, dropsy, and tuberculosis. The roots are used for treating ringworm, mouth ulcers, and sore throats.
The gorse plant is classified as an invasive weed in several parts of the world. It out-competes many native plants, which leads to a decrease in biodiversity. It changes the composition of plant communities by becoming a dominant species. The species also spread fire, which has negative effects on native plants. It is difficult and costs a lot to get rid of this plant once it takes hold in an area.
Gorse is an evergreen shrub with slender branches, and it grows in profusion on uncultivated, dry, and poor soils throughout Ireland. It forms impenetrable thickets in many areas. It grows on land that is too rough for most agricultural uses.
The plant can grow in full sun or full shade. It can grow on a wide range of soil types, including sand, gravel, chalk, clay, and metalliferous soils. It is difficult to control and eradicate once it becomes established.
“Ulex europaeus” can grow to a height of 3 metres. The leaves are oval, entire, and dark green in color. They are slender and have a sharp apex. The stipules are large and prominent. It has slender branches and twigs.
The gorse flower is yellow with a purple central spike. It grows in clusters of 30 to 40 flowers. The gorse flower is usually pollinated by the European goldfinch. The fruit (known as a hip) is a bright red, oval body partially covered with soft spines. The hip is covered with hairs that can cause irritation if they come into contact with the skin.
Each hip contains a single seed. The seed has a long stalk (or “beak”).
The gorse plant is very different from other members of the pea family. It does not have the typical characteristics of the pea family. For example, there is no chlorophyll present in its leaves. The leaves contain a large amount of tannin instead of chlorophyll, which accounts for their slow rate of decay.
The gorse plant does not have the typical traits of other members of its family. It does not have the characteristics of other members of its family. It does not have the green chlorophyll present in other members of its family plants.
The gorse plant is a non-legume. This means that it is unable to engage in the process known as nitrogen fixation. The gorse plant does not have root nodules containing certain bacteria like other members of its family. These bacteria are responsible for producing ammonia from the air. They also convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can absorb.
Most plants in the pea family are able to fix nitrogen, but the gorse plant is not able to perform this feat.
Gorse is avoided by most grazing animals due to its stiff, sharp spines. It is sometimes used as a living fence post by humans because of this ability to become rooted into the ground.
The most common type of gorse found in Ireland is the Western Gorse, “Ulex Europaeus”. This species is of great ecological importance. It has a very wide range being found all along the Atlantic coasts, on the hills of Ireland, and even in some parts of Scotland.
The gorse plant is included in the “British Protected Species” list. The law protects this plant from being killed, injured, or collected. It is an offence to interfere with gorse in any way. Gorse spread to many areas in the past. Today it is prevented from spreading by humans.
Humans carry gorse seed further afield (for example, on their clothes and shoes). The plant is considered detrimental to the grazing of sheep and cattle. Gorse can also interfere with the growth of young trees and crops.
Its ability to colonize new areas makes it very difficult to control. A method of controlling it is to wait for a period of dry weather and then set the plants on fire. Gorse needs at least 10 years before it produces flowers and seed. If gorse is treated in this way, it can no longer reproduce and the population is kept under control.
The Gorse is a shrub of the pea family, native to Ireland and Britain. Its scientific name is Ulex Europaeus. It grows mainly on chalky soil and open heaths and can also be found on sand dunes and rocky hillsides. The Gorse can grow up to 5 metres in height, but is generally smaller than this. It has a deep tap root which enables it to survive extreme weather conditions.
The stems are spiny, the leaves are narrow and glossy green. The flowers are yellow and have a sweet honey scent. They appear from June until September
The Gorse provides food and shelter for many wild animals. Its spiny bushes offer protection from predators. Rabbits and hares eat the young shoots and also shelter in the thicket. Sheep and goats also like to browse on the foliage and seeds. Bumblebees and honeybees collect the pollen.
Butterflies and moths feed on the nectar of the flowers.
Gorse is a very important plant for insects and birds. Some small birds use the prickly bushes as nest sites. The seeds are very nutritious for small birds and wild animals which is why they are eaten by so many. The Gorse flowers produce large amounts of nectar for the bees to make honey from.
Gorse is commonly used to make torches. Pieces of dried stem are soaked in fat and dried again before use.
The wood of the Gorse can be used to fuel fires.
A strong durable yellow dye is made from the flowers.
The dried Gorse plant was once used as a substitute for tea, when tea was very expensive and not available to everyone.
The dried flowers can be made into a herbal tea which is rich in vitamin C.
The gorse is a very pretty wild flower with a sweet honey scent.
There are over 1500 varieties of orchid in the world. They can be found growing in any part of the world as long as there are appropriate conditions. There are also many different types of orchids. Some orchids have just one spike, while others can have many hundreds of spikes. There are some species of orchid that look like little birds, and others that look like snakes.
Orchids can be found in many different habitats such as swamps, deserts, rainforests or even in the mountains
The orchid has a special way of protecting itself from disease. If the orchid is diseased the labellum becomes sticky or slimy. This prevents disease from getting into the rest of the plant and infecting it.
Orchids have no unique natural enemies, however humans are a major threat to them. Because of this some orchids are now classed as ‘endangered’. When people cut or pick the orchid for their own uses, it can leave the plant unable to reproduce.
Orchids attract insects and birds with their sweet scents and bright colours.
The petals of an orchid are very delicate, so if they fall off before the bee has had a chance to pollinate them, they will not be able to grow.
Orchids only grow when there are no humans around.
It is very easy to tell the difference between a regular flower and an orchid. Most orchids have 3 leaves, but they don’t look anything like other flowers because they are so much smaller.
The most common orchid grows in swampy areas and smells of meat. It attracts insects such as flies which spread its pollen to other orchids.
People usually wear hats for one of three reasons, for protection from the sun, for protection from rain or for fashion.
Hats were originally made from straw and similar materials and were used to keep people’s heads warm.
The design of the cowboy hat was probably based on the hats that soldiers wore during the civil war in America (1861-5). Later the round top hat became a symbol of authority and respect when worn by judges and parliament members. The cowboy hat became a symbol of the wild west when it was adopted by lawmen and outlaws alike. Businessmen tend to favour the idea of a hat to make them look more authoritative.
There are many different types of hat that people wear for protection from the sun, such as the straw boater, Panama and sombrero.
A bowler hat was once worn by butchers because it was easy to clean off blood and guts after a hard days work.
The French tightrope walker, Charles Blondin, wore a special type of hat with a small top hat and a miner’s lamp on one side and a spotlight on the other. This strange hat was used by Blondin when he was performing tricks on a highwire without a net.
Cold weather hats include the watchman’s cap and watchcap.
A cowboy hat is usually worn by people who ride horses a lot.
A courier’s bag was carried by messengers and delivery people.
There are several types of hat that are worn for protection from the sun.
The foreman wears a Stetson, which is a type of cowboy hat.
The French legionnaire wore a kepi.
The school marm wore a bonnet.
When Lewis and Clark went on their expedition they wore a pith helmet to keep the sun off their heads.
The slouch hat has a long brim and a short crown. The brim can be folded down for protection from the sun or the crown can be folded up to provide more protection from the rain.
It is rude to wear a hat indoors.
You might find yourself in the position where you have to take the hat of a dead person. After you have done this it is polite to place the hat over your heart for the duration of the funeral or memorial service.
When a guest enters a home it is polite to take your hat off.
When you shake someone’s hand, it is polite to remove your right-hand glove if you are wearing one.
If it is very crowded and you need to share a seat with someone, it is polite to offer your seat to an older person, a lady or a disabled person.
In the past people used to greet each other by taking their hats off and bowing or curtsying.
In England, if a man tipped his hat it meant he was single and looking for a wife. If he didn’t tip his hat it meant he was already in love.
In Austria if you wear your hat indoors, then the building will fall down.
In Elizabethan times it was customary to remove your hat when speaking to a woman to show that you respected her as an equal.
A dead person’s hat is placed on their coffin at their funeral.
When you take your hat off it is polite to hold it in your hand until you need to put it back on again.
A derby is a type of soft felt hat that was named after the town of Derby in England.
The first hard-boiled detective, Sam Spade, wore a flat cap in the novel “The Maltese Falcon”.
There are many superstitions that surround hats. It used to be thought that witches couldn’t cast a spell on you if you touched iron, so it became customary for people to touch iron objects before entering a house, specifically a doorknob, in order to ward off any evil spirits in the home.
Sometimes it is considered bad luck to give someone the “evil eye”, which involves making a fist with your right hand and extending your index finger. The extended finger is then aimed at the object of your scorn. This gesture supposedly causes bad luck for the target of your scorn. If you want to ward off this spell, it is polite to touch someone’s hat when they do this to you.
Tipping your hat is a way of greeting friends.
It was once customary to take your hat off when entering someone’s house and not put it back on until you left.
It is said that if you put a hat on a bed, then the first person to sleep in that bed will die.
A black hat means that you are in mourning while a white hat means that you are happy or well.
There are many different types of headgear that people wear for protection, decoration or religious reasons.
The most basic form of headgear is perhaps the hair. All people have some form of hair, although some choose to style it differently. Men used to tend have more natural styles and women often have their hair either above or below their shoulder. Other ways of keeping one’s hair out of the way include tying it into a ponytail or using a hairband to gather it.
A woman’s hat can tell you a lot about her. The type of hat that a woman wears often gives an indication of her social status or her attitude towards fashion. For example, top hats are usually only worn by men while a peasant woman would not be seen dead wearing one of these headpieces as they are very expensive and impractical.
A toque is a form of headgear for women that looks like a cross between a chef’s hat and a ski helmet. These were more popular in the 19th century.
A hijab is a veil that covers a woman’s head and hair. These are common in Islamic countries, especially those with strict Sharia Law.
Turbans are pieces of cloth that wrap around the head and are often worn by people from the Indian subcontinent.
The crown is the flat circle of cloth that sits on the top of a wig or another hairstyle.
A diadem is a band of gold, usually decorated with jewels, that is worn across the forehead. Traditionally it is a symbol of royalty although it is not uncommon for other people to own diadems for decorative purposes.
A circlet is another word for a diadem.
A headband is probably the most basic way to keep a woman’s hair in place. It is a strip of fabric that keeps the hair out of the face.
A pillbox hat is a small hat, shaped like a box. These were very fashionable among women in the 1950s and it was socially unacceptable to be seen in public without one.
A riding hat is a form of headwear designed to keep the sun out of one’s eyes while on a horse. It is usually made of felt or leather.
A topi is an item of clothing that is worn on the head and designed to shade the eyes from the sun. It is sometimes worn by people going on safaris in Africa.
A veil is a piece of clothing that is intended to cover a woman’s hair. It can also be used to hide her face from the eyes of strange men.
A yarmulke is a small piece of cloth that is worn on the head by some Jewish men during prayer or other religious rituals. It is basically a smaller version of a skullcap.
The clothes that one wears on a regular basis can give an indication of what their social status is. A peasant family in medieval England would not own as many clothes as a noble family and they would most likely have to farm in the fields in order to make money, rather than having slaves to do that job.
A blouse is a garment that is worn by women primarily for the purpose of keeping warm. The sleeves are wide and loose and it often has lace around the collar.
A bolero is a kind of jacket that is worn on top of the main shirt or blouse. It has wide, long sleeves and comes below the waist. It is often worn by women.
A brooch is a decorative pin that is used to fasten clothing, such as a cloak or outer garment. It is usually made of metal or glass and pinned onto the fabric.
An earring is a piece of jewellery that is worn through the ear, sometimes for decoration or for practical reasons.
An amulet is an object that a person wears to bring them luck or grant them magical powers. These objects originally were often inscribed with symbols like a cross or a Star of David.
A necklace is an object that is worn around the neck and can range from simply a chain to incredibly ornamental pieces of gold, silver, or other precious metals.
Peasants in the middle ages wore little to no clothing when working. When they were not working, they might wear a simple tunic that only went to their knees. When working in the cold, they might put on a cloak or two, but other than that they had little in the way of clothing.
A neckline is the part of a shirt, dress, or coat that hangs over the neck and varies in design from high to low.
A bodice is the part of a woman’s dress that encompasses her chest. The upper part of a dress, below the waistline or the hips.
A sash is a long piece of cloth that is tied around the waist and used to hold a sword or other weapon.
A robe is a loose fitting outer garment. It can be sleeveless or have short sleeves and can be worn by men or women.
A jumpsuit is a one-piece sleeveless garment that covers the wearer from the neck down. They are often made of fire retardant material.
A turtleneck is a piece of clothing that can be pulled up and around the neck. The opening at the bottom edge of the neckline is called a “turtleneck”. It gets its name from the turtle’s egg-shaped shell.
Clothing is often made from cotton, wool, or silk. It can also be made of leather.
A loincloth is a piece of cloth that is tied around the waist and used to cover the genitals. They are commonly used by people who go around without any other clothing on at all. They can also be worn by people who are wearing very little clothing in general. A loincloth may also be worn as protection for certain parts of the body when doing dangerous activities.
The cold climate in the North caused people to wear many layers of clothing to stay warm.
The Middle Ages was an exciting and dangerous time. There were times of war and times of peace. It was a time when people served kings and queens, but also a time when people could choose their own religion. Kings made decisions that affected their country. People could choose if they wanted to join the army or work on a farm.
It was truly a time when any person could succeed and make a change.
In the next section, you will find out why people chose to live in one place instead of another. You will also learn about the changes in daily life that occurred between the periods of the Dark Ages and the Middle Ages.
“It is only by the cleverness of our minds that we are human. It is what separates us from the beasts.”
Inequality was everywhere during the middle ages. Inequality was the different degrees of power and wealth between classes. Inequality was especially apparent between peasants and nobles. There were many laws that kept the lower class peasants in their place and many ways that a peasant could be put to death, if they didn’t obey their lord.
There were some kings who ruled with kindness and understanding, others were cruel and oppressive. Some nobles were generous and kind while others abused their peasants. There were even priests, bishops and cardinals who believed in God but treated the lower class as if they themselves were gods.
Most priests believed that commoners were sinners just like nobles and knights. So, in that way they didn’t think less of peasants even though they had no power and were treated horribly. The Catholic Church was very powerful and owned a lot of land in Europe. Sometimes, knights would fight each other for control of land even though they were both Christians.
Slavery still existed in the Middle Ages but on a much smaller scale than it had in the Roman Empire. Many Viking raiders from Scandinavia would capture people from other countries and use them for labor. In England the Norman nobles enslaved many Anglo-Saxons. In other places where slavery still existed it was on a very small scale.
The Church was corrupt and many priests ignored their vows of poverty. They would often keep some of the money that was given to the Church in offerings. Even the Popes were corrupt. Many Popes were more interested in being powerful rulers of Christendom rather than spiritual leaders. There were also many rumors about homosexuality among the clergy.
Peasants were at the very bottom of the hierarchy. They were treated worse than slaves who were at least protected by law and not owned by their masters. Peasants worked long hours and had to pay many fines that their lords imposed on them. The Church did not require that the peasants be treated well. Many peasants tried to escape their lives in poverty by fleeing to towns but this was made very difficult.
They were sometimes caught and whipped back to their villages.
The lives of those in the lower class got a little better as time went on but it would be many centuries before they would have the same rights as upper class citizens.
The period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the year 1000 is sometimes called the “Dark Ages” because Western Europe was dark in more ways than one. There was a loss of civilized behavior and people were no longer living in cities that were centers of art, literature, and education. Instead, they lived in poor villages or on isolated farms and didn’t have many of the comforts of Imperial Rome such as public baths. Much knowledge that had been previously acquired was lost.
The Church was the main force trying to keep civilization together and it did preserve much of the learning from ancient Rome. But the Church itself was not perfect. It had many corrupt and immoral priests and bishops who used their power to take advantage of the people. There were many superstitions that plagued the peasants and kept them in a state of fear. At one time, Pope Benedict VIII claimed that masturbation caused a disease called “Gout”.
There was no cure for this disease until you died!
The Church did a lot to alleviate the suffering of the peasants and to keep them from rebelling. The concept of “Humility” became very popular among the clergy. They taught that all rich people, no matter what their social status, were no better than the lowest peasant. This kept the peasants from complaining about their lot in life because they were taught it was their destiny.
Another way the clergy kept the peasants in line was through fear and superstition. For example, they told people that if they committed suicide then their souls would go to a realm of eternal torment. They also claimed that sin was rampant among the nobility and that nobles had secret orgies and participated in weird pagan rituals.
The Church also taught that man abused the environment and was destroying God’s green earth. This also kept the peasants from revolting because they loved nature and didn’t want to see it destroyed.
As the common people suffered, the Popes and Cardinals lived in luxury. The Church was rich from collecting money for masses and from all of the vast land that it owned. Some of the Popes were more corrupt than others but they were all very decadent at this time. In fact, at one time or another most of them had mistresses that they openly supported with Church funds.
In 1014 A.D. a German Bishop named Benno complained about this situation. He claimed that the clergy should return to a life of poverty and that they should not have any more power or wealth than the peasants. He was promptly excommunicated by the Pope at the time, but in 1080 A.D.
an Italian priest named Pope Gregor reformed the Church drastically. He did away with most of the corruption and had the Pope and other high ranking priests live a life of poverty.
Sources & references used in this article:
Insect assemblages in a native (kanuka–Kunzea ericoides) and an invasive (gorse–Ulex europaeus) shrubland by RJ Harris, RJ Toft, JS Dugdale, PA Williams… – New Zealand Journal of …, 2004 – JSTOR
The Invasive Niche, a Multidisciplinary Concept Illustrated by Gorse (Ulex Europaeus) by A Atlan, N Udo – Diversity, 2019 – mdpi.com
Invasive plants: guide to identification and the impacts and control of common North American species by W Kaufman, SR Kaufman – 2013 – books.google.com