Wine saps the juices from grapes and leaves behind a bitter aftertaste. They are not really tasty but they have their place in wine making. The fruit of the Wine Sap (Vitis vinifera) is used in many types of alcoholic beverages such as beer, cider, mead, wine and other spirits. It is grown all over Europe including North America where it was introduced to settlers during the colonial period.
The vine is one of the oldest cultivated plants. Its roots were probably first domesticated some 5,000 years ago. The vines grow up to 20 feet tall and produce a wide variety of fruits.
Most grapes are produced from the same species (Vitis vinifera), but there are hundreds of varieties within that genus. There are also several subspecies (varieties). Some of these include:
Red Wine Vine (Vitis labrusca) – produces red grapes and cabernet sauvignon.
White Wine Vine (Vitis chinensis) – produces white grapes and pinot noir.
Riesling Grape (Vitis labrusca var. riesllii) – produces Riesling wine, which is made with the grape’s skin rather than its seeds.
White Zinfandel (V.blacasiana) – a cross between a muscatela and vernae grapes. You guessed it: produces white zinfandel wine.
The white sap of the winesap apple tree can be used as a natural dye for cloth and material. Its flowers are sweet-smelling and can also be used to make perfume and toilet water. The fruit is also edible, though not particularly nutritious.
Its flesh is white and contains about 1 to 5 small black seeds. It can be made into wine and is sometimes used in dessert recipes. It may also be dried to make a sweet, which resembles candy in taste and appearance.
The tree grows best in temperate and subtropical zones. It needs a fair amount of sunlight to grow properly and should be watered about once a week. It can survive in poor conditions and even heavy pollution.
The plant originates from the Northeastern United States, but is now grown all over the world. It can be found in New Zealand and parts of South America. It should not be confused with the common apple tree (pyrus malus), which is a member of the rose family and produces edible fruit for human consumption.
How to Care for Winesap Apple Trees
Caring for the winesap apple tree is relatively easy and requires little maintenance. They like well-draining, sandy soil with a pH between 5.5 and 6.5.
It should be watered regularly during dry periods. The leaves may turn yellow or brown if the plant does not receive enough water. Like most plants, it should be planted away from concrete to avoid temperature changes. It should also be planted away from power lines. If planted near a structure, it can prevent moisture from rising up and causing water damage.
The tree produces small, round fruits which grow in clusters of two to six. Each fruit is about a half-pound and grows in a glossy red color when ripe. Unripe fruits are green.
The flesh is white and firm with a juicy, refreshing taste.
The tree begins producing fruits when it is about three years of age. It typically bears fruit from early Summer until mid-Autumn (June, July, August, and September).
The fruit may be eaten fresh or used in juice, jelly, or wine. It can also be preserved by canning, freezing, dehydrating, or fermenting (to produce apple cider). Fermenting apples to produce alcohol generates a substance called “apple jack,” which is about 20% alcohol and can be used as fuel for torches.
Apples are a very popular fruit among humans and can be found in many grocery stores, farmer’s markets, roadside stands, etc. There are many different varieties of apples, each with their own unique taste and texture. They have a wide range of applications in cooking and baking, from desserts and pastries to entrees and salads.
Outdoor plants can also be vulnerable to various diseases and pests. Apple scab is a fungal infection that affects the leaves and fruit. It can be treated with fungicides or by replacing outdoor plants with disease-resistant varieties.
Apple anthracnose is a fungal disease that primarily attacks the leaves, stem, and roots of the plant. It can be treated with a mixture of antibiotic pills and neem oil applied directly to the infected areas. Aphids are small, hard-shelled, bug-like insects that suck the juice from plants. They can resist most natural pesticides, but are susceptible to insecticides such as Endosulfan.
Saprobic fungi grow in or on decaying organic matter such as dead leaves, fallen trees, animal dung, and even dead plants. Fungi do not live on soil, but instead receive nutrients from the plants or animals on which they feed. Many types of mushrooms are actually fungi, including the delicious edible variety.
The color of most mushrooms varies between white and light brown. They can grow as tall as trees or as small as dust mites. Edible varieties grow among the leaf litter and undergrowth, while non-edible varieties grow on the trunks of trees.
Edible mushrooms can be eaten after cooking. They are also used as a food flavoring in soups, stews, gravies, and sauces. They can also be dried, ground into a paste, or dissolved into a liquid to create flavored drinks and desserts.
Agaricales are a group of organisms that includes all types of “gilled” mushrooms. They have a long, flat stem and large pores (or gills) underneath the cap of the mushroom. The stem contains a network of internal tubes that extend throughout its length.
These tubes transport water and nutrients through the organism.
Puff-ball mushrooms are round to oval in shape and consist of a mass of spores surrounded by thick skin-like layers. The skin is so tough that it can be difficult to slice open.
Agaricus bisporus is a large edible mushroom with a brown cap and stem. It grows in clusters under trees, often after rain.
Grifola frondosa (also known as Hen of the Woods) is a very large mushroom with a porous surface and thick flesh. It has a long, thick stem and grows in clusters on trees.
Agaricus silvicola is a small edible mushroom that grows in dense clusters on the ground. It has a brown, ridged cap and a white stem.
Morchella esculenta is an edible mushroom that grows in dense clusters on the ground. It has a smooth brown cap with light colored ridges and a white stem. It is the most common type of morel.
Porcini (Cèpes in France) are large edible mushrooms with a spongy appearance and ridges on the cap. They grow in clusters under trees.
Chanterelles are orange, yellow, or white mushrooms with a funnel-shaped cap. Larger varieties have a convoluted, ridged stem. They often appear in large groups around tree stumps and dead trees.
Tricholoma stipitaria is a medium-sized mushroom. It has a brown or greyish cap and a fibrous, somewhat rooting stalk. They grow alone or in small groups on lawns and grassy woodlands.
Marasmius oreades are very small mushrooms, rarely growing bigger than 1 cm tall. They have a cap and a stem that is completely white (often looking like dust). They grow among grass and leaves in large clusters.
Flammulina velutipes is a small edible mushroom with a tan cap and stem. It often grows in clusters on the stumps of dead trees.
Laccaria amethystina is a medium-sized mushroom with a purple cap and a pale purple stalk. It grows among leaves and undergrowth in deciduous woodlands.
Suillus luteus is a medium-sized mushroom with pale yellow pores and a brown cap covered in bumps. It grows on the ground in deciduous and coniferous forests.
Lactarius deliciosus is a medium-sized edible mushroom with a pinkish-orange cap and a milky liquid that leaks from its gills when it is cut. It grows under deciduous trees and shrubs.
Russula mariae is a small mushroom with a red-violet cap covered with irregular dark spots. It grows in deciduous and coniferous forests and is often found in large groups.
Lepista nuda is a medium-sized edible mushroom with a brownish cap and a thick stem. It grows in dense clusters on grassy fields and meadows.
Tricholoma matsutake is a medium-sized edible mushroom with a whitish cap and a thick stem covered in small scales. They are often found growing in clumps under coniferous trees.
Helvella macropus is a medium-sized mushroom with a grayish cap and thick stem. It often grows in clusters among leaves in deciduous forests and tends to grow underneath other fungi.
Russula ochroleuca is a small edible mushroom with a creamy-white cap covered in pale yellow spots. It grows in dense clusters on the ground in deciduous forests.
Panaeolus papilionaceus is a small edible mushroom with a brown cap covered in dark spots. It grows on the ground among grass and leaves in deciduous forests and likes to grow in the shade.
Panellus stipticus is a small mushroom with white gills with a strong smell. It grows under deciduous trees and shrubs and is often found in large groups.
Psathyrella candolleana is a small edible mushroom with a brown cap covered in irregular scales. It grows on the ground among grass and leaves in deciduous woods and forests.
Sources & references used in this article:
The vitamin C content of the Winesap apple as influenced by fertilizers by MT Potter, EL Overholser – Jour. Agr. Res, 1933 – books.google.com
The effect of Alàr on fruit cracking of Stayman Winesap apple. by DT Sullivan, FB Widmoyer – Fruit Varieties and Horticultural Digest, 1970 – cabdirect.org
The winesap apple as a source of vitamin C. by MT Potter – Journal of Home Economics, 1933 – cabdirect.org
The effect of differential nitrogen fertilization upon yield and fruit quality of Stayman Winesap and Baldwin apples. by JM Beattie – Proc. Ohio St. Hort. Soc. 1950, 1950 – cabdirect.org
total number of apple trees in commercial orchards. These varieties are widely grown and occur in most of the important commercial apple-producing areas of … by JCC Price, CT Ames – 1921 – Mississippi Agricultural Experiment …
A BIG-APPLE Winesap sport re. cently produced may enable sci by S WINESAP, BEN DAVIS, R BEAUTY, Y IMPERIAL… – naldc.nal.usda.gov
Vitamin Studies on Apples. I. The Vitamins A, B and C Content of the Rome Beauty, Delicious, Stayman, Yellow Newtown and Winesap. by LG GS – 2014 – search.proquest.com
Cracking of golden Russet apples by RS Herrick – 1910 – … Station of the Agricultural College of …