Cannas are the only species that produce viable seeds. They have been used medicinally for centuries. Cannabis sativa is one of the most popular recreational drugs worldwide. Cannabis sativa is grown all over the world and it’s use goes back thousands of years. Cannabis sativa is also known as marijuana or hemp.
The cannabis plant contains many cannabinoids such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). These compounds have medicinal benefits.
The active ingredients in the cannabis plants are found in the leaves, flowers, stems and seeds. The seeds contain the majority of the plant’s active ingredients. The leaves, flowers and stems are commonly eaten raw, dried or smoked. The seeds are usually ground into a powder and added to food products such as tea or oil.
There are several ways to grow cannabis plants including hydroponics (watering), soil cultivation, greenhouse growing and indoor growing. Hydroponic methods require less water than soil cultivation but they take longer to grow and require more space.
Greenhouses allow for continuous growth all year round but they are expensive to build and maintain.
The cannabis plant can reach up to 3 metres in height and live for about 3 years. It has broad, green, finger-like leaves and white or purple flowers.
The plant is mainly grown for its seeds which contain psychoactive cannabinoids that have medicinal benefits. The plant needs just the right conditions to thrive. It requires a lot of space and light to grow properly.
Cannabis contains over 400 chemicals. Of these, more than 100 of these are unique to the cannabis plant.
It also contains essential nutrients and vitamins such as calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc.
Cannabis is believed to be one of the earliest crops domesticated by humans. It has been used for recreation, spiritual enlightenment, medicinal purposes and as a valuable source of textiles, paper and building material.
Marijuana can also be used to produce biofuels more efficiently than first thought. It is grown all over the world but it is illegal in most countries.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main chemical compounds found in both cannabis and hemp. It accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract.
It has been shown to have anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory and anti-psychotic properties. Unlike other cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), it is not psychoactive. This means it does not produce a ‘high’ when ingested.
The human body also produces cannabinoids for various functions such as immunity and pain response.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of cannabis. It is found in female cannabis plants in much higher quantities than in males.
When smoked or ingested, it can cause hallucinations, changes in perception, difficulties with learning and thinking and an increased heart rate.
The drug has many physical effects. It increases heart rate, decreases blood pressure, dampens pain and makes users eat more, which often leads to an increase in weight.
The effects can vary from person to person based on factors such as their mood, where they are when they take the drug and their expectations of the experience.
A synthetic version of THC, dronabinol (Marinol) is legal in some countries. It is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and to increase appetite in patients with AIDS.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a product of the conversion of THC. It is found in much lower quantities in cannabis plants and often in the resin on the outside of a marijuana cigarette.
It has sedative effects but is less potent than THC.
A cannabis plant that contains more CBN than THC is less likely to cause hallucinations.
Cannabichromene (CBC) is one of the main active ingredients in cannabis. It has anti-inflammatory and sedative properties and may also prevent the growth of certain types of tumor cells.
CBG can prevent the growth of cancer cells but it does not have any psychoactive effects.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is also found in cannabis. It is rarely present in recreational strains but can be produced synthetically.
Like THC, it is a psychoactive substance and can make users slightly paranoid. Unlike THC, it can also decrease anxiety and cause a rise in appetite.
The effects of THCV in synthetic cannabis can include rapid heart rate and increased anxiety.
Synthetic cannabinoids are artificial substances designed to imitate the effects of cannabis. They can be sprayed on herbal material and smoked or sold as a liquid to be vaporized and inhaled in e-cigarettes and other devices.
Like cannabis, they activate cannabinoid receptors but the effect can be much more powerful and is also more quick to onset and longer lasting.
The main drawback is that the effect is less predictable. The amount needed to achieve the desired effect can vary from person to person and from batch to batch of the substance.
This can lead to overdose or accidental addiction.
Research suggests that synthetic cannabinoids can cause a rise in blood pressure and heart rate, anxiety attacks, nausea and vomiting and an intensification of pre-existing psychotic and mental health conditions.
Some may cause damage to the internal organs such as the kidney and liver.
These drugs are often marketed as herbal incense or herbal smoking blends. The herbs are not the active ingredients but act as a cover for the chemical ingredients, which are often labeled incorrectly on the packaging.
They can also be mixed with other psychoactive substances and sold as “herbal ecstasy”.
Synthetic cannabinoids were originally developed by pharmaceutical companies as an investigational treatment for epilepsy and other conditions.
Synthetic cannabinoids became widely available online around 2008. Some of the most common are:
AB-FUBINACA: This drug was linked to clinic visits across the US and Canada by people suffering adverse reactions to it in 2014. It has a similar effect to THC, causing hallucinations, paranoia and anxiety.
It is thought to be between 5 and 10 times more potent than THC. In 2015 it was linked to several deaths in New York.
SGT-40: Very little is known about this chemical, other than it can cause hallucinations, nausea, drowsiness and loss of motor control. It was linked to several deaths in Illinois in March 2015.
XLR-11: This drug was linked to hospitalizations in New York in 2014 after it was found in a bottle labeled as “bubble hash”. It can cause severe symptoms including rapid heart rate, hallucinations and psychosis.
The effects of synthetic cannabinoids are unpredictable. They can be stronger than THC so it takes less to achieve the desired effect but this can also make the effect more unpredictable and harder to manage.
It is not known what ingredients may have been used to create these drugs or how they will interact with other substances taken with them.
There is little quality control on these drugs so the composition of what’s in the container can differ from time to time and from one bottle or package to another.
The risk of adverse reactions including overdose is high when using these drugs.
Some users report that these drugs can cause temporary symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and psychosis after use.
There have been reports of kidney damage, liver damage, heart attacks and strokes shortly after taking these drugs.
These drugs are intended for research purposes only and not for human consumption.
The use and distribution of these drugs is illegal in most countries.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime added several of these drugs to their Schedule 1 list of prohibited substances in December 2016.
Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of new man-made chemicals that are either sprayed on dried plants and smoked, or sold as a liquid for preparation as an herbal smoking mixture. They can be very dangerous, especially when taken in excess or when mixed with other drugs.
They can also be very addictive, causing severe cravings and withdrawal effects.
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Divergent patterns of endogenous small RNA populations from seed and vegetative tissues of Glycine max by …, S Bloomfield, SI Jones, H Win, JH Tuteja, B Calla… – BMC plant biology, 2012 – Springer
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