Arum plant is one of the most popular plants in nature. There are many varieties of arums, but they all have the same basic characteristics: They’re evergreen shrubs with small white flowers that grow from pinkish or purplish berries. These fruits (or seeds) are edible and used as food in some parts of the world.
The common name “arum” comes from Latin, meaning “rose.” The word “arum” means “rose” in Greek. So, the name arum is probably derived from a combination of two words: rose and mint.
In addition to its culinary uses, arum is known for its medicinal properties. It’s been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times. Its leaves are sometimes chewed to relieve coughs and cold symptoms, while the seeds are dried and ground into a tea that helps treat stomach problems such as indigestion and ulcers.
The best vegetables from arum are the roots. After digging out, the roots need to be cleaned properly. The skin should be peeled and the flesh should be cut into small pieces. It can then be cooked in a number of ways, such as boiling, roasting, or frying.
Arum root has a crunchy but firm texture when raw. It tastes very sweet, like a cross between a chestnut and a carrot. It has a nuttier, richer taste when cooked.
The leaves of the arum plant can also be eaten, but they must be cooked to destroy the toxins that naturally occur in the plant. There isn’t much nutritional value in the leaves since they’re mostly water, though they do contain some carbohydrates and fiber. The root is more nutritious than the leaves because it contains carbohydrates, vitamins B and C, and minerals such as calcium and iron.
The flowers, sprouts, and buds are also edible, but they should only be eaten when they’re young. They have a mild flavor and can be eaten either raw or cooked.
Arum is native to southern Europe and North Africa, but it’s now grown in many countries for its culinary uses. In the U.S. it’s grown mainly in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. It prefers damp areas and grows well in wet soil or shallow water.
It thrives best in shady, moist forests with acidic soil.
Arum is not related to the calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), but it has similar looking flowers and is often known by the same common name: calla lily. It belongs to the same family as the calla lily, but it’s a different genus (Zantedeschia) and species (aethiopica).
Arum berries are poisonous when raw, so they should not be eaten. The leaves can also be poisonous if consumed in large quantities. The leaves and roots can also irritate the skin.
Arum berries are edible when boiled, roasted, or made into a tea. The root is edible when cooked, as well as nutritious. It was eaten in ancient times and can still be eaten in some parts of the world today. The stem, fleshy leaf petioles, seeds, and flowers can all be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves, flowers, and seeds can all be eaten raw.
Arum is the sole genus in the family Araceae, which is composed of nine species. The most common species in the U.S. is Arum italicum (cuckoo pint). The other species are native to Asia, Europe, and Africa.
All arums have a similar look: large leaves arising from a short stem, with an upright spadix surrounded by a green spathe.
Arum plants are also known as lords-and-ladies (from the spiny lobes that resemble a medieval mitten, complete with faux knuckles), monkey cups, jack-in-the-pulpits, and wake-robin.
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The cinquefoil is a shrub of the genus Potentilla. The name Potentilla comes from the Latin word potens, meaning “powerful,” probably a reference to the healing properties of some species.
The name cinquefoil comes from the Old French word cinque, meaning “five,” and the Old French foiz, meaning “leaf.” The five-lobed leaves are certainly a key identifying feature of this plant.
The cinquefoil is a cousin of the rose, and it has many similar medicinal usages. It’s also related to the strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, and other fruit and vegetables. The cinquefoil is an excellent source of natural dye, and its roots contain high amounts of Potassium.
The cinquefoil grows in almost every habitat in North America. It grows from coast to coast in Canada and south to the extreme southwest of the United States. It also grows in the northern states of the U.S., but it does not grow in the southern states, except in Texas and surrounding states.
The cinquefoil prefers shady areas of fields, forests, and hillsides. It grows most vigorously in moist, nutrient-rich soil.
The cinquefoil is a low, green, shrub that sprouts yellow flowers in springtime. It has a simple, but pretty yellow flower. The cinquefoil is a low-growing plant and does not tower over the other plants in its habitat.
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The Milk Thistle is a thistle that grows in North America. It’s also known as the Lady’s Thistle due to its association with Mary, the mother of Jesus. Its scientific name is Silybum marianum, hence its common name. (Silybum is derived from the Latin word silybum, meaning “with silvery veins” and marianum comes from Mary.)
The Milk Thistle is a wildflower that grows in abundance in many parts of North America. It’s also known as Spiderwort, due to its delicate, spidery foliage. (Some people also call it Lion’s Tooth due to the shape of its spiny seed pods. The name Lion’s Tooth probably comes from its long-gone resemblance to a claw or a lion’s tooth.)
The Milk Thistle is a plant native to the Old World. However, it has been naturalized in many places (including North America) as an introduced species.
The Milk Thistle typically grows to be between four and eight feet in height. It has dull green spines and simple, oblong leaves that are covered in fine silvery hairs. At the base of the leaf stalk is a rosette of spiny leaves, which act as a defense mechanism.
The flowers are lavender or pink in color and surround a dense cylindrical spike that develops into a silky head of hair-like seeds.
The leaves of the Milk Thistle can grow up to twelve inches in length and four inches in width. The stem, which has only sparse hairs, is light green in color and can grow up to three feet tall. Most parts of the plant are hairless. The stem and leaves are covered with a fine powdery substance, which can cause skin irritation.
The roots of this plant are very bitter and contain milk-like juice, hence its name. (The roots also look a little like a mammary gland.)
During World War I, this plant was used to prevent blood clotting and increase the flow of urine in wounded soldiers.
The Milk Thistle is also commonly used to treat liver diseases, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It’s also used to rid the body of certain poisons and toxins, including mushroom poisoning. It is also effective in treating jaundice and certain types of arthritis.
The Milk Thistle has a long history of use in herbal medicine. The ancient Greeks wrote about it in their medical texts. The plant has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years.
The Milk Thistle is a coarse biennial plant that grows in North America. The stem and leaves of the plant are covered with prickles, which act as a defense mechanism.
The stem of the Milk Thistle is green and prickly. It grows up to three feet in height and has sparse hairs, which are more prominent on its lower surfaces. The prickles are sharp and can cause skin irritation.
The leaves of the Milk Thistle grow in a circular formation around the stem and can be as long as twelve inches and four inches wide. The leaves have smooth edges and each is notched and wrinkled around the base.
The flowers of the Milk Thistle are pink or purple in color. They surround a dense cylindrical spike that can grow up to three inches long. The flowers have five petals and each stem has five divisions, which divide into smaller sections.
The seedpods of the Milk Thistle are prickly and spindle-shaped. They develop from the flower spike and grow up to three inches long and less than one inch in diameter. They grow in a spiral pattern and are covered with fine, downy hairs. The outer shell of the pod is covered with fine, wispy hairs that easily catch in clothing.
The flavor of the Milk Thistle is bitter and unpleasant.
The Milk Thistle is found growing wild in open fields, along roadsides, and in vacant lots. It grows abundantly in the central and western United States.
When gathering the Milk Thistle, collect only young plants with new growth that do not exceed twelve inches in height. Collect the plant in July or August, before the seeds begin to ripen in September.
The Milk Thistle can be infused into tea and consumed or prepared as an oil infusion.
The milk thistle is known in some circles as the “herb of the martyrs”. It’s scientific Latin name, Silybum marianum, comes from the Virgin Mary. The plant was believed to have sprung up where her tears fell and was a protective charm against evil. The ancient Greeks, who used the plant for a number of medical purposes, called it “silibum,” meaning “that which helps women milk their mammaries.”
Toxicity: The prickly hairs on the leaves and stem can cause skin irritation. The ripe seeds may cause nausea or diarrhea if eaten.
The prickles are not obivious when the plant is growing, so wear gloves when collecting.
The milk thistle is unusual in that it contains a toxin (silymarin) that is also used as an antidote for another toxin, acetominophen (Tylenol). Until recently, most of the research on silymarin has been done in animals. More research is necessary to determine whether the results in animals also apply to humans.
Recent research has found that silymarin increases the number of a certain type of white blood cell (monocytes) in the blood. This could be important for people with certain health conditions such as cancer.
Silymarin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and protects the liver from toxins. It also protects and repairs liver cells damaged by various agents.
Silymarin is also an alternative treatment for hepatitis and other liver disorders. It does not cure the conditions, but it may relieve some of the symptoms.
Silymarin is sometimes used to treat arthritis, but scientific evidence does not clearly show that it is effective for this purpose.
Silymarin has been used to treat heart disease in people who do not respond well to standard therapies. However, there is conflicting evidence about its benefits for this purpose.
Silymarin has been used as an antidepressant in Europe, but studies have not found it to be effective for this condition.
Silymarin is sometimes included in supplements that are intended to improve memory. There is no scientific evidence that it is effective for this purpose.
Silymarin should not be used as a substitute for aspirin or other types of painkillers, or to prevent heart attacks. More evidence is needed to determine whether silymarin is effective for these conditions.
In some people, silymarin can affect the liver function test results, possibly causing a false positive result for liver disease. Therefore, silymarin should not be taken if you have liver disease or are taking other medications that can also affect the results of these tests.
Silymarin might lower blood sugar levels. Caution should be used if you are taking medications that also can lower blood sugar, such as insulin or a sulfonylurea.
Silymarin might promote the growth of estrogen-dependent tumors.
Sources & references used in this article:
Microfabricated microbial fuel cell arrays reveal electrochemically active microbes by H Hou, L Li, Y Cho, P De Figueiredo, A Han – PLOS one, 2009 – journals.plos.org
Thermogenesis of three species of Arum from Crete by RS Seymour, M Gibernau… – Plant, Cell & …, 2009 – Wiley Online Library
Insecticidal Activity of Arum maculatum Tuber Lectin and Its Binding to the Glycosylated Insect Gut Receptors by P Majumder, HA Mondal, S Das – Journal of agricultural and food …, 2005 – ACS Publications
Sexual mass allocation in species with inflorescences as pollination units: a comparison between Arum italicum and Arisaema (Araceae) by M Méndez – American Journal of Botany, 2001 – Wiley Online Library
Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Arum maculatum leaves extracts as affected by various solvents and extraction methods by R Farahmandfar, R Esmaeilzadeh Kenari… – Food science & …, 2019 – Wiley Online Library
Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum‐ and Paris‐type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization by IM Van Aarle, TR Cavagnaro, SE Smith… – New …, 2005 – Wiley Online Library
Arum–a decade of change by PC Boyce – Aroideana, 2006 – researchgate.net