Almonds are one of the most popular fruits in the world. They have been cultivated since ancient times and they were used as food during the time of Alexander the Great. Today almonds are grown worldwide and they are widely consumed all over the world. There are many varieties of almonds, but there is only one species: A. sativa L., commonly known as “almond”.

The main characteristics of the almond tree are its size (up to 40 feet), its shape (round or oval) and its color (reddish brown). Almonds grow in a wide range of climates from tropical to temperate regions.

They require lots of water and sunlight, which makes them very susceptible to dry conditions. However, they can survive drought periods if proper care is taken.

There are several types of trees that produce almonds such as:

A. indica, A.

japonica, A. maysii, A. nigrum and others

In addition to these types of trees, there are other kinds of nuts that produce almonds such as:

Prunus amygdalus (walnuts), Prunus armeniaca (hickory nuts), Pecan spp., Fraxinus spp.

and others

All trees that produce nuts are deciduous and can grow in temperate and subtropical regions. They also require large spaces (10-20 acres) for them to grow, which is why they are usually found on farms.

In addition, they can live up to 200 years and their roots go down up to 100 feet, which makes them suitable for erosion control and maintaining ecological balances.

The types of trees that we will be focusing on are the “true” or “bitter” almonds, which are part of the Prunus dulcis genus. These trees can grow in different climates: temperate, subtropical, tropical and arid.

They can be grown both in mountains and on plains. There are two types of bitter almonds: The European bitter almond and the Indian bitter almond. The European variety grows in Italy, France and other European countries. The Indian variety grows in India, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries.

If we talk about the characteristics of bitter almonds, the Indian variety is smaller than the European one. In addition, the color of its kernel is darker than that of the latter.

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The color of its shell is also darker. Bitter almonds can also be grown in different regions. Even though their name implies that they are bitter, when they are processed they produce a sweet essence. Other than being used in cooking, bitter almonds are also used in the manufacturing of perfumes.

There are other types of almonds such as the Texas almond and the Missouri almond, which are also part of the Prunus dulcis species.

Sources & references used in this article:

Almonds (Prunus) by DE Kester, TM Gradziel, C Grasselly – … of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops …, 1991 – actahort.org

Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics by C Kallaway, LM Almond, H Barr, J Wood… – Photodiagnosis and …, 2013 – Elsevier

Current research on reducing pre‐and post‐harvest aflatoxin contamination of US almond, pistachio, and walnut by BC Campbell, RJ Molyneux… – Journal of Toxicology …, 2003 – Taylor & Francis

Fusion and propagation in graphical belief models by R Almond – Computing Science and Statistics: Proceedings of the …, 1988 – ralmond.net

A cognitive task analysis with implications for designing simulation-based performance assessment by RJ Mislevy, LS Steinberg, FJ Breyer, RG Almond… – Computers in Human …, 1999 – Elsevier

A developmental approach by GA Almond, CP Powell – Political Systems, in: World, 1966 – ucss.ge

Models of games education by P Werner, L Almond – Journal of physical education, recreation & …, 1990 – Taylor & Francis

Unraveling home and host country effects: An investigation of the HR policies of an American multinational in four European countries by P Almond, T Edwards, T Colling… – … Relations: A Journal …, 2005 – Wiley Online Library

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