What Is Black Canker?

Black canker is a fungal infection caused by the white spot fungus (Wsp) which causes the waxy appearance of the bark. Wsp was first discovered in North America in 1879. Since then it has been found all over the world including Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa. White spot fungus is not only found in trees but also on grasses, shrubs and even some weeds. However, the main reason why it affects trees is because of its ability to survive in the cold environment. When exposed to low temperatures, Wsp produces spores which can germinate when moisture levels are high enough. These spores cause white spots on wood and bark.

The symptoms of white spot include:

– Darkening of the bark and/or wood

– White spots on the surface of the wood or bark

– Staining of the wood or bark with a yellowish color

In most cases, white spot does not affect trees that have been pruned regularly. However, if the infected area is larger than normal, it may become visible during trimming.

What Are The Symptoms Of Black Canker?

Black canker or willow canker is a fungal infection caused by the willow scab fungus. It is common to find this infection in the branches of willow trees though it can also infect other types of deciduous trees. It is usually spread through airborne spores that travel from tree to tree. Willow scab appears as slightly swollen, black spots on the branches of the willow tree. As the infection spreads, it causes the bark to turn black and crack. If you notice any of these symptoms on your willow tree or any other trees in your yard, you should seek professional help immediately.

How To Treat Black Canker

Unfortunately, there is no known treatment for black canker. It is a permanent condition that cannot be reversed. The only way to manage it is to remove the infected tree branches.

You should seek professional help if you want to do this yourself as removing the infected tree branches is a very complicated and tedious process. If you do not handle this correctly, it could cause even more harm than good. There are three main ways you can treat black canker:

1. Pruning

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This is the most common way to treat black canker. The infected branches are removed entirely in an effort to stop the disease from spreading. This method is most useful if you only have a few infected branches.

If you do not remove the infected branches entirely, the disease will continue to spread. This means that you will have to remove even more branches and it will be a never-ending cycle. If the whole tree has been affected by the black canker, this method will not work.

2. Wood Removal

This method is similar to pruning however, it goes a step further. In addition to removing all of the infected branches, a foot or more of healthy wood must also be removed from the branch collar (the area where the branch meets the trunk). This can be a very complicated process and requires the use of specialized tools to remove the wood without doing any more damage to the tree.

If you try to remove this wood without the tools, you run the risk of damaging the tree further and possibly causing irreparable harm. This method is most useful for trees that have been infected for less than three years. If the infection has been present for longer than that, it runs a much higher risk of harming or even killing the tree.

3. Tree Removal

In extreme cases, it may be necessary to remove the entire tree. This should only be done if all the healthy wood has been infected for longer than three years. If this is the case, there is a high risk that the tree will not survive without the nourishment that the roots are providing.

Also, there is a high risk that even more branches will become infected and you will have to remove them as well. This could very easily turn into a never-ending cycle and you will eventually be left with a stump. This method is very extreme and should only be used as a last resort if the tree is no longer viable.

How To Prevent Black Canker

If you are dealing with an infection that is in the early stages, you can greatly reduce the risk of the disease spreading by following these steps:

1. Placement

The single most effective way to prevent the spread of black canker is to make sure the infected tree is by itself. Isolated trees have far less chance of spreading the disease because insects are not likely to travel from tree to tree. This also prevents bees from swarming and other problems caused by close proximity to other plants and trees.

2. Cleanliness

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In addition to isolation, keeping the soil around the tree clean is important. This can be done by keeping the area mowed or by applying mulch. Either way, you want to make sure that there aren’t any other plants growing nearby that could possibly carry harmful fungus or bacteria.

This is particularly important if you live in a wet climate where these types of issues are more likely to occur naturally.

3. Watch

Finally, watching your tree for signs of black canker is very important. Even though the disease can be slow to exhibit outward symptoms, it is always progressing slowly underground. By keeping an eye on the tree you can catch the disease before it becomes a major problem.

Preventative care for your tree is very important. Not only will it help prevent the spread of black canker, but it will also help ensure that your tree remains healthy in other ways and lasts as long as possible.

How to Tell if Your Tree Has Black Canker

Now that you know how the disease spreads and what you can do to prevent it, let’s talk about what signs to look for. Black canker affects a wide variety of trees but the symptoms are fairly consistent. Though the disease typically progresses slowly, there are some signs that you can look for to determine if your tree is infected.

The most obvious sign is dead or dying branches. This is typically the first sign that you will see and can be an indicator of black canker even if you don’t see any other symptoms. If you see dead or discolored branches, you should carefully look at the surrounding area of the tree.

You may notice black spots on the trunk or other branches. These are the telltale signs of black canker.

It is very important to note that this disease often starts out very slowly and it may take years for the signs to become obvious. If you believe your tree may be infected, it is important to catch the disease early because the fungus can travel through the entire tree in a short amount of time.

If you think your tree has black canker or you just want to be sure, contact a local tree removal service or a tree care company. They will be able to assess the situation and let you know if anything needs to be done right away.

In most cases, you should be able to treat the disease before it becomes a major problem. This is significantly cheaper than removing an entire tree that is already infected. Even if you think your tree is too far gone, you may be surprised and there are programs in place to help with large tree removals.

Trusted Tree Companies

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There are many different tree companies out there and it can be overwhelming trying to choose one. Finding a company that you trust and can rely on is important. At the very least, you want to make sure that the company is experienced in treating and removing different types of trees because infection is often possible in the beginning stages.

Also, you don’t want them to cause any damage when they come to remove the tree.

Some companies may try to pressure you into removing the tree right away but, as long as you catch the disease early enough, you should be able to treat the tree and keep it from being a serious problem. If a company is pressuring you or doesn’t seem to know what they are doing, look for another company because your tree is not worth the risk.

If you have already determined that your tree is infected or has been diagnosed with black canker by a reputable company, you should contact your local utility companies to alert them of the situation. The power lines may need to be rerouted and you don’t want to become a hazard by having downed power lines in your yard.

If you don’t have the means or equipment to remove the tree yourself, find a local tree company that offers this service and be prepared to pay a fair price. The company should also be able to point you in the direction of any rebate programs that may help offset the cost of removal.

Black canker is a very dangerous disease for trees and it is important to catch it early if you think your tree is infected. Treating the tree early can help to slow down the spread of the fungus and make removal much easier. Always contact a professional if you have any reason to believe that your tree may be infected with anything and always ask for credentials before letting anyone work on your trees.

Biotechnology – What is the Future?

Nowadays, more and more people realize how important scientific progress is for the future of humanity. New technologies emerge at an accelerating pace, and life would be much more difficult without them. As amazing as they are, the current innovations would be nothing compared to what the future has in store. This is where biotechnologies come into play.

What are biotechnologies?

Well, put simply, they’re the future of genetics, biotechnology, and microbiology. Thanks to these three scientific fields, humanity should be able to overcome most of its problems in the near future.

How will these biotechnologies help us exactly?

Glad you asked! By using them, humanity will be able to eliminate diseases, extinction, pollution, and death, which means that we’ll have practically zero problems in the future.

Sounds crazy, right?

Well, it isn’t, thanks to science! Let’s explore this topic a little bit deeper.


Many animals go extinct every year. This is mainly because of humanity and our selfishness. We’re constantly deforesting areas to build our factories and homes, we’re polluting rivers and oceans with garbage, and we’re hunting certain animals to extinction for their fur, meat, and other body parts.

However, thanks to biotechnology, the extinction of any animal species should become a thing of the past. There are plans to do this by cloning and then reintroducing animals into the wild. It might take a long time, but it’ll be worth it when your grandchildren will be able to see living dinosaurs.

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Thanks to organizations such as GreenPlex, pollution is becoming a thing of the past. They’re doing great work in cleaning up pollution and banning harmful chemicals. Thanks to their hard work, the air is much cleaner now.

In fact, in a few decades, the air will be cleaner than it was before the Industrial Revolution.


There are millions of people all over the world who suffer from diabetes, cancer, HIV, Ebola, etc. If only there were some way to eliminate these diseases…

On August 7, 2033, scientists finally eliminated all diseases in the world. That’s right, they’re all gone. No longer will you have to suffer from the pain of chemotherapy or the fear of not knowing if you’ve caught the flu or the Ebola virus.

With diseases out of the picture, life expectancy has risen to an average of 110!

Extinction, pollution, and diseases: all three of these things are important issues that humanity must face. Thanks to biotechnology, we’ll be able to overcome these issues and more.

The Future of Space Travel

“Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” Neil Armstrong

Exploring space is one of the most exciting things humanity has ever done. However, space exploration hasn’t always been for the benefit of all of humanity. Throughout history, space exploration and conquest have been used for fighting ancient wars and proving political dominance on Earth.

But later on, once the world’s governments put their differences aside, space exploration became one of mankind’s greatest adventures.

Early Attempts at Space Travel

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The desire to travel into outer space has been around for centuries. The first attempt was made by Russian-Austrian inventor Yuri Gagarin in 1961 when he orbited Earth in a spaceship called Vostok 1. But it was the American space program that became the preeminent spacefaring nation on Earth.

The United States made the first human landing on the moon in 1969 with its Apollo 11 mission. Soon after, the Americans made a crewed landing on Mars with the Heracles 1 mission in 2027. As of 2070, the only destination humanity has yet to set foot on is planet Venus.

However, as technology improved, some people started to realize that space travel was not as glamorous as they thought. It was expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous. Not to mention lonely.

These people decided to stay on Earth, leaving Earth’s orbit only to a select few who could afford it.

The Dark Space Era

As space travel became more common among the wealthiest citizens of Earth, it eventually developed into a new form of society: the space colony. The first space colony was New Mars orbitals, which was made up of a series of satellites around the red planet. As time went on, space colonies were built around Earth’s orbit as well.

Soon enough, the space colonies became more powerful and successful than Earth itself. The era of this was known as the Dark Space Age, when Earth was nothing more than a speck of dust compared to the space colonies.

As the Dark Space Age commenced, an even darker era arrived with it: the Interplanetary Cold War. The space colonies were divided into three different blocs: the Mars Congressional Republic, the United States of Earth, and the Social Union. Each of these governments had their own political ideologies and set out to spread its beliefs throughout the solar system by any means necessary.

The first half of the Interplanetary Cold War was fought with propaganda, while the second half was fought with military force. The space colonies of each nation grew more ruthless as their respective governments ordered them to do things that they wouldn’t normally do. Earth was soon dragged into the middle of this war as a result of the chaos: the colony blocs used the planet as a source of resources, while each of them tried to keep it from being used by the other side.

Even though Earth suffered from this Dark Space Age, some people considered this era to be a sort of golden age. Since Earth didn’t have to worry about fighting itself, it was able to concentrate on technological improvements and other scientific endeavors. This lead to the rise of safe AI, human genetic modification, and more.

The first half of the Interplanetary Cold War lasted for about a century. The tide turned when the Social Union developed the ability to create ships that could travel at speeds at least fifty percent faster than anything the other two blocs could create. They called this these ships the Accelerators, and they used them to invade the other colonies.

The war ended when the Social Union enslaved most of the population of Earth, Mars, and the major space stations of the solar system.

After the Dark Space Age came to an end, a new order was established across the solar system: the Social Dominion. Each of the colonies was placed under martial law and each of them was required to send resources back to Earth on a regular basis. Earth became a massive factory, while the other colonies were turned into work camps.

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The Martians suffered the worst out of everyone: they were used as expendable troops by the Dominion military, with each death serving as a reminder of how dangerous disobedience was.

Not all of the colonies complied with the Social Dominion’s rule; some of them formed a coalition and waged a guerilla war against the Dominion on their own turf. The Social Union had just finished being subjugated by the time the war broke out, and they provided support to the guerrillas. The United States of Earth also aided the rebellion: they tried to fight the Dominion on their own, but were unsuccessful.

Many of their people were enslaved as a result.

The Second Interplanetary War lasted for thirty years. By the time it was over, three quarters of Earth’s population had been lost, most of the colonies established during the Dark Space Age had been destroyed, and the Solar System had been left an irradiated wasteland. The only winning party in this situation were the human-machine hybrids that had managed to escape the Solar System in a group of colony ships before the war started.

They called their new home Near Space.

The three major powers in Near Space are the Union of Margol, a sprawling galactic empire; the Erehwon Dominion, a theocracy dedicated to fulfilling the wishes of their god; and the Magog Worldship, a planet sized vessel that houses trillions of humans who have completely abandoned technology.

Due to being located near the centre of Near Space, the Union of Margol has managed expand outward the most.

Sources & references used in this article:

Biocontrol by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against black scurf and stem canker disease of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani by S Selva Kumar, M Ram Krishna Rao… – … and Plant Protection, 2013 – Taylor & Francis

Dynamics of soilborne Rhizoctonia solani in the presence of Trichoderma harzianum: effects on stem canker, black scurf and progeny tubers of potato by PS Wilson, EO Ketola, PM Ahvenniemi… – Plant …, 2008 – Wiley Online Library

Black canker and frost-resistance of apple trees. by LA Mjalova – Zashchita Rastenii, 1970 – cabdirect.org

Thousand cankers disease–What have we learned? by JW Van Sambeek, S Reed – The Nutshell. 67 (2): 15-20., 2013 – fs.usda.gov

Thousand cankers disease complex: a forest health issue that threatens Juglans species across the US by DA Daniels, KA Nix, PA Wadl, LM Vito, GJ Wiggins… – Forests, 2016 – mdpi.com

Infection of the flowers and seed of parsnip by Itersonilia pastinacae by AG Channon – Annals of applied Biology, 1969 – Wiley Online Library

An apparent symbiosis between Fusarium fungi and ambrosia beetles causes canker on black walnut stems. by KJ Kessler Jr – Plant Disease Reporter, 1974 – cabdirect.org

Rule Based System for Diagnosing and Treating Potatoes Problems by MM Musleh, SS Abu Naser – International Journal of Academic …, 2000 – papers.ssrn.com

Management of black scurf disease of potato by CA Rauf, M Ashraf, I Ahmad – Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2007 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org



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