Runner Type Peanuts – Information About Runner Peanut Plants
Peanuts are small plants with long stems, which have two main parts: the pod (the edible part) and the seed (which contains sugar). They grow in tropical regions such as South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. There are many varieties of peanuts but they all share one common feature: they contain some amount of oil or fat inside them. These oils make them tasty when eaten raw. However, they are not very nutritious and do not provide much energy.
When roasted, however, the oils become highly palatable and give off a pleasant aroma.
The most popular variety of peanuts is the Valencias (or Valencia) peanut. They are found in various colors including red, yellow, green and purple. The leaves are usually light brown or even white in color while the pods tend to be dark brown or blackish-brown. The seeds are round and oval in shape. Some varieties of peanuts have only one type of seed whereas others may produce different kinds of seeds depending on the growing conditions.
Valencia peanuts are considered to be high in protein, vitamins A and C, potassium, iron and calcium. They also contain a good amount of carbohydrates, fiber and other nutrients like manganese, magnesium and phosphorus.
High quality peanut oil is often used in cooking. Although it is high in fat, it contains a single type of fat called monounsaturated fat or omega 9. It also helps lower bad cholesterol levels and can help reduce the risk of heart disease when eaten in small amounts. Peanut butter is one of the most popular and nutritious food items in the United States along with bread, crackers and other snack items. It contains no cholesterol or saturated fat.
However, it provides a big hit of calories since a single 2 tablespoon serving contains about 190 calories!
Peanuts grow underground and are classified as legumes. Although they are not related to the so-called “soybeans” which people in the west often call “beans”. Peanuts grow underground like potatoes, onions and garlic rather than hanging from vines or bushes like tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers.
Peanuts can be eaten in many ways. They are often boiled, roasted and salted or even eaten raw after being removed from their shells. A very popular dish that is eaten in regions like Africa and South America is called mole which contains more than 20 ingredients and takes a lot of effort to prepare.
The peanut plant blooms in the spring and summer. The flowers develop into pods which should be left on the plant for at least 90 days before they can be harvested. After this time, the plants should be cut down and the peanuts can then be retrieved from the ground.
Peanuts were first cultivated by Native Americans including the Incas and Mayans thousands of years ago. The original wild variety of peanut was actually called the Goober Pea and it grew all over North America. The name “peanut” comes from the word “goober” which is itself derived from the African word kuba which means “ground bean”. It was introduced to Europe in the 1500’s by Portuguese sailors who brought them back from Africa.
The Peanut Corporation of America (PCA) caused one of the biggest food scares in U.S. history when it was found selling salmonella infected peanuts to large companies like Kellogs, Smuckers, Kraft and even the U.S. military.
Many people were made sick and several died as a result of eating the peanuts. The company was later found guilty of fraud, conspiracy, smuggling and other crimes. It is now out of business.
While peanuts can grow underground, they are often grown on “peanut farms”. These farms are sometimes located in poor areas of the world where they can provide much needed revenue for families in these regions.
Peanuts are considered to be an agricultural crop rather than a nut. This is because they are grown underground, have a seed inside a hard shell and are typically eaten in their unshelled form. In fact, they are classified as a legume just like beans and peas.
The most popular type of peanut in the United States is the Virginia Peanut which was first discovered growing wild in South Carolina. It is still the main type of peanut grown in this region today.
Many types of animals like to eat peanuts. Squirrels and chipmunks bury them for the winter. Birds such as jays, woodpeckers and owls eat the seeds. Deer, raccoons and other animals enjoy eating the plants. Of course these animals do not suffer from peanut allergies!
Americans consume about 800 million pounds of peanuts per year. This works out to about 2.75 pounds of peanuts per person per year.
In the United States, peanuts are grown in many southern states such as Georgia, Alabama, Texas, Virginia, North Carolina and Florida. Other types of nuts such as pecans, almonds and even macadamia grow in these regions too!
Peanuts are a good source of resveratrol, a compound found in grape skins that helps prevent coronary disease.
A medium-sized peanut plant can produce up to 10 pounds of peanuts per year.
The typical peanut butter cup has between 3 and 434 calories.
Peanuts were included in American military rations starting in around 1918.
Peanuts are part of the legume family, along with other beans.
The United States is the leading exporter of peanuts in the world.
It takes around 540 peanuts to make a 12-ounce jar of peanut butter.
The name “Goober” comes from Africa and is a term used to describe peanuts and other beans. It later became “Goober Peas” and eventually just “Goobers.”
George Washington Carver invented 300 different products from the peanut including axle grease, coffee substitute and rubber tire patching cement.
The “Goober Peas” song was written by George G. Allen in the 1890s and became very popular. It is still a popular song among American school children to this day.
Thomas Jefferson was one of the first to plant peanuts in North America when he included them as an experimental crop at his estate Monticello.
It is illegal to sell peanut butter in any form in the country of New Zealand.
Both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew peanuts and made peanut butter at their homes.
Peanuts grow underground and are not actually nuts, but rather the seeds of a fruit. The plant is related to the bean family.
The peanut is a close cousin of the “groundnut” which grows wild in Africa.
Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to encounter peanuts which grew abundantly in South America and named them “Idi Amin” meaning “work of the devil” believing them to be poisonous. It was only in the mid 1800s that they began growing them in Europe and North America for food.
In World War II, “Goober” was the American slang term for a generic South-East Asian.
Goobers are not just eaten plain. In the southern U.S. they are usually either roasted or boiled and then eaten with or without salt. Peanut soup and pie are also very popular foods made from peanuts.
The peanut is not actually a nut, but rather a fruit.
The peanut is the only vegetable that is grown underground.
During WW II, American soldiers consumed an average of 1,500 peanuts a year.
The largest peanut ever grown was in Georgia in 1977 and weighed an amazing 3 pounds.
A mature crop of peanuts can produce up to 800 pounds of ‘mature seeds’ per acre.
Harmony Farmacy and Nut Farm is the name of the oldest store in the U.S. that sells only nuts. It was founded in 1914 and is located in Kentucky.
In the 1890’s, a bushel of peanuts cost $1.00.
It takes 540 peanuts to make a 12-ounce jar of peanut butter.
The peanut is native to South America, but spread into Africa and Asia very early in history. It wasn’t grown or used in North America until about 1700.
In 1770, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson attended a banquet in Philadelphia where they were served steak smothered with peanuts. This was the first time either of them had seen the food.
The “Goober Peas” song is one of the more popular songs in American history. It was written by George G. Allen and quickly became a standard in Tin Pan Alley and later in vaudeville.
More than half the peanuts grown in America are used to make peanut butter.
Before the Civil War, George Washington Carver of the Tuskegee Institute sent an assistant to Mexico to try and find a cure for the poor soil of Southern farmers. He discovered a peanut plant that was resistant to disease and produced larger yields. Carver began experimenting with peanuts and discovered more than 300 uses for the plant, none of which involved food! He found over 300 different products that could be made from peanuts. He created the first peanut butter but couldn’t patent it because he didn’t make it himself, but rather licensed the process to companies like Uneeda.
Rose O’Neal Lenroot, first lady of the United States in 1924, served only peanut butter and jelly sandwiches at her husband’s inaugural luncheon.
The peanut is the state nut of Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia and Texas.
Sources & references used in this article:
Storage protein profiles in Spanish and runner market type peanuts and potential markers by XQ Liang, M Luo, CC Holbrook, BZ Guo – BMC Plant Biology, 2006 – Springer
Interference of horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) with peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by NM Hackett, DS Murray, DL Weeks – Weed Science, 1987 – JSTOR
Peanuts: gibberellin antagonists and genetically controlled differences in growth habit by AH Halevy, A Ashri, Y Ben-Tal – Science, 1969 – science.sciencemag.org
Progress in breeding Sclerotinia blight-resistant runner-type peanut by JJ Goldman, OD Smith, CE Simpson… – Peanut …, 1995 – peanutscience.com
Interaction of Plant Population Factors and Level of Production on the Yield and Grade of Peanuts1 by FR Cox, PH Reid – Agronomy Journal, 1965 – Wiley Online Library