Common Dogwood Problems: Pests And Diseases Of Dogwood Trees
The following are some common problems of dogwoods and their causes:
Dogwood Bark Disease Pictures
Diseases Pictures For Dogs And Cats
Dogwood Anthracnose Treatment
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is a bacterial infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. It is one of the most deadly types of bacteria known to man. It affects both animals and humans.
The disease was first described in 1878, but it wasn’t until 1981 that the bacterium’s name was officially given due to its rapid spread among livestock herds in Europe and North America. Anthrax is transmitted through inhalation or contact with infected animal tissues. The disease usually begins with fever, chills, severe headache, muscle pain and weakness followed by death within three days after which time the body becomes covered in blisters. Death occurs within two weeks if not treated with antibiotics.
It is believed that humans developed anthrax as a biological weapon in the 20th century and released it among enemy troops during World War One, but the bacteria was not properly contained and returned to the thrower. The same occurred in 1979 when an accident in a lab released it among employees, killing four instantly.
Lifecycle of the Anthrax Bacteria
The lifecycle of the anthrax bacteria begins when it is ingested and begins to grow inside the intestines. It then develops into an inactive state and reproduces inside the intestines. This causes the infected person to begin developing flu-like symptoms, including severe pains, fever, chills and general weakness.
When the anthrax bacteria are transported to the lymph nodes, they become active and start invading nearby cells. The anthrax bacteria cause the cells to produce a protective coating around them which blocks the immune system from identifying them as harmful. Once this happens, the bacteria begin producing deadly toxins that destroy nearby cells and spreads throughout the body.
Once the anthrax bacteria begin to reach vital organs such as the heart and lungs, death is almost inevitable.
Antibiotics such as penicillin can be used to treat anthrax, but not all cases respond to it. Immediate antibiotic treatment is needed to stop the destruction of infected cells. Anthrax bacteria usually die off naturally after death, so it is important to ensure the body is disposed of safely to prevent the spread of disease.
Like most diseases, prevention is better than cure and the best way to do this is by practicing good personal hygiene. This means frequent washing of hands using soaps or sanitizers. It also means not touching your face or head if you have been handling an animal carcasses or similar objects that could be contaminated with bacteria or viruses.
It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you are handling dead animals or have been in contact with people who have recently died from infectious diseases.
Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem. It was discovered in the late 20th century that many bacteria, including the anthrax bacteria, had developed a resistance to antibiotics used to treat them. This has caused an increase in the number of fatalities from infectious diseases.
There are now new antibiotics being developed to counter the problem of bacterial resistance, but so far nothing effective has come along to combat existing disease strains.
Early detection of infectious diseases is vital to successful treatment, which is why it is important to seek help as soon as possible if you are experiencing symptoms.
Still, even with the best medical treatment and preventative care, death is always a possibility.
You have a 1 in 6 chance of dying from untreated anthrax infection. With antibiotics, your chances of survival jump to 3 in 6.
Home treatment is possible for anthrax, but is not advised except in the most extreme circumstances. If you have a pet that has been infected with anthrax, for example, it may be safer to home-treat the animal than to take it to a veterinarian, as there is a risk the vet could contract the disease from the pet and infect others.
Home treatment involves application of antibiotics topically to open wounds or by injection if the patient is unable to ingest the medication. Symptoms should start subsiding soon after treatment.
If you are in an area known to have a high risk of anthrax infection, you may wish to keep antibiotics on hand for emergencies. Injections are the best method of treatment and should be given as soon as possible after exposure. The drug of choice is now doxycycline, but others can be used if necessary.
If you are unable to get an injection, you can take the antibiotics orally, though this method is much slower and may not be as effective.
If you are unable to get either type of medication, then you must attempt natural remedies. One such home remedy for anthrax is using common items found in your home. To help fight infection and aid in healing, try applying a poultice made from breadfruit paste and water on the affected area two or three times a day.
This should be used in addition to other antibiotic methods you may be using.
Anthrax is a disease of humans and animals alike, and can be contracted in several ways. The inhalation of anthrax bacteria is the most dangerous method of infection and can kill you within a matter of days.
Fortunately, this is the least common way of contracting the disease.
The second most common method, and the least dangerous, is by skin contact with items infected with anthrax. This usually occurs through handling animal hides or meat, wool, hair, or bones. Fortunately, this is the easiest type of anthrax to treat since it responds well to antibiotics.
It is possible to get anthrax from eating infected animals, although it is very uncommon. The most likely carriers are undercooked meat from sheep, cattle, goats, and deer.
Anthrax can also be contracted through exposure to infected humans, either by breathing in the bacteria (inhalation) or by skin contact. This is the rarest form of human-to-human transmission. It can either be absorbed through cuts or sores on the skin, or by inhaling small particles.
The bacteria can enter the body though the lungs and cause infection that way.
Finally, anthrax can be transmitted from mother to child through the birth process. While this is rare anywhere in the world nowadays, it is still a factor in some parts of the world.
There are three major types of anthrax infection, each with its own distinct set of symptoms. They are:
G1 – Generalized (widespread) anthrax. Symptoms usually begin within 2-8 days of infection.
G2 – Localized (confined) anthrax. Susceptible areas of skin begin swelling after 1-5 days of infection, then turn black and mortify after 3-7 days.
G3 – Cutaneous (skin) anthrax. Skin turns black after 1-3 days of infection.
The symptoms of all three types are similar and include:
1. Sore throat
4. Stomach pain
7. Chest pain
8. Coughing up blood (in cases of inhalation anthrax)
9. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
10. Difficulty talking or hoarseness (in cases of inhalation anthrax)
11. Bluish coloration of the skin
If you are infected, you will also experience one or more of the following symptoms:
1. Swelling of the arms or legs (i.
e. lymph glands)
2. Sore on throat or cough (i.
e. inhalation anthrax)
3. Fever over 100 degrees Fahrenheit
6. Stomach pain
Unfortunately, a few days elapse before the symptoms of anthrax show themselves, giving the bacteria time to thoroughly infect the host and spread through the body. By this time, it is almost too late to cure the disease. It is best to take preventative measures as soon as possible.
If you are currently suffering from any of these symptoms, do not hesitate to contact your local medical professional immediately.
RECOMMENDED ACTION ITEMS:
1. If you experience a sore on your body, get it checked out by a medical professional immediately.
The same goes if you have been around an animal that has died from unknown causes or been in an area where you may have been exposed to anthrax (such as a barn).
2. Ask your physician about Ciprofloxacin (antibiotic).
In the event that you are infected, this will reduce the chance of its spreading and becoming fatal. You may also be prescribed medication for the specific symptoms you are experiencing (i.e.
Cough medicine for the cough).
3. Avoid all contact with sick or dead animals.
This should go without saying.
4. Wash all cuts immediately and thoroughly with soap and water or a disinfectant.
5. Avoid all contact with blood or any items (e.
g. bandages) that may have come into contact with it.
6. Stay away from large crowds, as anthrax is easily spread from person to person.
Bioterrorism is a risk that has been plaguing the world for quite some time now. While most governments are reluctant to publicize the fact that they may have experienced a bioterror attack for fear of public panic, you can be sure that steps are being taken behind the scenes to make sure it doesn’t happen again.
If you have any information about this possible attack (or if you just want to sound off about it), please call your local FBI office or American Red Cross office to report it. They are there to help.
Thank you, and be safe.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF)
Public service announcement 5A-3A-4A
FBI Anti-terrorism Hotline: (1-866-432-5880)
INSERT FOOTAGE OF THE ATTACK ON THE WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWERS, AND THE PENTAGON IN 2001.
Zoom in on the Empire State Building, as a 747 flies toward it.
Voice-over: On September 11th 2001, America fell victim to the first major terrorist attacks on its soil.
The plane bears down on the building.
Zoom out of the Twin Towers collapsing onto themselves. Now, let us never forget…
Fade into images of the World Trade Center burning. Images repeat until narrator starts speaking again.
The events of that fateful day are burned into the memories of all Americans, and the entire world.
However, the world was not always like this.
Zoom in on a picture of the World Trade Center in the olden days, when it wasn’t attacked.
Many decades ago, there was peace throughout the world. There were no worries about terrorism or wars. Nobody owned a firearm of any kind.
Police officers did not carry guns and had no need to. The only people who had guns were criminals, but the crime rate was low.
In this world of peace, the United States of America conducted experiments. Experiments to create super-soldiers to help “protect the homeland” and to spread “freedom and democracy” throughout the world.
These experiments produced a number of successful results, but also many unsuccessful ones. The successful ones became the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams, such as S.W.A.T., the United States Federal Marshals Service’s FAST team, and other similar law enforcement units.
The unsuccessful ones became known as X-Creatures.
The X-Creatures were very powerful, but very mentally unstable. They could not be counted on to follow orders, and were considered a dangerous threat to themselves and others.
The government quickly realized that these beings were a problem. They formed an elite group of secret agents from the best and brightest in all professions: The Agents of Evolution (or AOE for short).
The Agents of Evolution had one goal: To hunt down and capture or kill the X-Creatures.
It was a success.
The AOE completely wiped out all of the X-Creatures. However, during their time hunting down the X-Creatures, the AOE found that they had skill sets that were useful outside of their original goal. They were organizing, efficient, and very determined.
These traits would come in handy in their new goal: Keeping the world safe from threats, both foreign and domestic.
The AOE grew to become a powerful organization that has influenced the world in many ways.
For example, did you know that the U.S.
President isselected by a committee of AOE operatives?
Or that many major companies and businesses are actually fronts for the AOE?
Or that most of your entertainment is approved by the AOE?
The AOE also has its hand in many wars, revolutions, and other “regime changes.” The purpose: To keep the world safe from destructive forces.
Many of the changes are not even noticeable. However, if you look hard enough, everything that makes our world “safe” has been shaped by the AOE.
You may say that it is impossible for one organization to have that much power. You would be right… mostly.
The AOE is not a monolithic organization with a name plate on the door that says “AOEHQ.” It is like a fluid. It is everywhere, and it has no set shape.
If you drained all of the water out of a fish tank, would it still be there?
Of course it would. It is not a tangible “thing,” but rather a concept: Order. The world needs order to thrive.
The AOE is that order.
The AOE is watching you. Don’t turn your back on it. Don’t try to fight it.
It is patiently waiting for you to do either, because that will be the day that it eliminates you.
There is no escape.
…but then again, there never was.
“STOP!” a voice cries out. “Put your hands in the air and do not turn around.”
A sweat-stained SWAT officer approaches you. He wears a heavy armor that covers his entire body. A helmet with a visor covers his face.
He carries a matte black rifle that is leveled at your chest.
“Get on your knees,” he commands.
“Yes, sir,” you say, dropping to your knees.
He walks around you, keeping his rifle aimed at you. His heavy boots crush the dry grass underneath. You stare at the ground in front of you to avoid making eye contact.
What’s your name?”
“David Dryden. Officer, I’m just a photographer. I was taking pictures of the smokestacks because they’re beautiful at sunrise, and then I heard screaming.
I saw her body.
Am I in trouble?”
Do you know that we had an APB out on a woman who was reported missing yesterday?
Her name was Rebecca Schilling.
Ring any bells?”
You feel faint.
Rebecca has been missing for less than twenty-four hours, and now she’s dead?
“Answer me!” the SWAT officer shouts, kicking you in the side.
“Y..yes,” you whimper. “That was her name.”
“She had your card in her pocket. Said you two were to meet up here last night.
Why would she do that?”
“I don’t know,” you say. “I haven’t seen her since high school.”
She was a student at your high school?”
“Yes, officer. We were in the same graduating class.”
How come I’ve never seen you around here before?”
“I don’t live here. I’m just visiting my dad for the summer.”
“Uh huh,” he says, unconvinced. “You can get up.”
Shakily, you get to your feet.
“I’m going to need you to come with me,” he says, motioning towards his squad car with the rifle.
You get in the backseat of the police car, and the door is shut behind you. The officer gets in the driver’s seat, while another one gets in the passenger seat. The engine revs to life and the car begins moving forward.
“We’re going to go do a little investigating at your father’s house. I’m sure everything is just fine, but we have to follow procedure.”
You nod silently.
The car speeds down the road towards your father’s house.
What happened yesterday?
You suppose it doesn’t really matter. What matters is what you’re going to do today.
Part of you wants to beg these officers for help.
They’re supposed to be good guys, right? Protectors of the people? You’re not a bad person, so why would they want to arrest you?
Another part of you thinks back to when Officer O’Malley visited your class in the 9th grade. He said if you are ever in a situation where a criminal threatens your life, you should do whatever they say. It’s better than dying.
That’s what you’re dealing with right now. A couple criminals who think you know too much.
But they don’t know that you don’t really know anything. They don’t know that all you’ve done is find a dead body. If you act scared, really scared, maybe they’ll think you know something and kill you.
If you act casual, maybe they’ll think you really don’t care, and kill you.
Or maybe they already know everything and this is just their way of getting rid of you.
You feel the car turn, and the tires roll up to a curb. The engine is turned off.
“We’re here,” one of them says, not opening his doors yet. “Once we get inside, just do what we say, and nobody gets hurt.”
“Okay,” you reply, trying to keep your voice from shaking.
The door is opened from the outside, and you are instructed to get out of the car. Your legs feel weak as you stand up, and you have to take a second to regain your balance.
The house in front of you looks normal. White picket fence, green grass, flower beds. If not for the two men by your sides, you would think you were at the home of some middle-class family.
“This way,” one of them says, motioning towards the front door.
As you approach the house, you notice that your leg hurts a lot. You are not used to this amount of physical activity. Sitting in a classroom all day is much more your style.
The front door is opened and you are instructed to enter. You do so, finding yourself in a small foyer. To your left is the living room, where you see a woman sitting on the couch.
“Hands on your head,” one of the men says, and you obey.
One of them walks past you, and you hear him say “Gina?”
as he enters the living room. You turn your head, but are stopped by a firm hand against your shoulder.
The man who entered the living room speaks: “what do we have here then?”
“I found him outside,” the other man says.
“You know how much I like surprises, Vincenzo.”
You hear a creak as the woman gets up from her seat, followed by footsteps. You turn your neck as much as you can to try and see what is happening, but all you see is the living room floor.
The woman stops in front of you, looking you up and down and examining every inch of your body.
“Hmm, he looks pretty scrawny,” she says. “
What do you think, is he a fighter or a lover?”
“I don’t know,” Vincenzo replies, “but I’m willing to bet he’s not a survivor.”
Well, there’s only one way to find out, isn’t there?”
You feel strong hands grab your arms, pulling them behind your back. As they do so, you feel a sharp prick in your arm. The last thing you see is the woman stepping forward to look at your face as you pass out.
Sources & references used in this article:
Consumer perceptions of landscape characteristics, disease and pest problems, and the value of powdery mildew resistant dogwood by WE Klingeman, JR Brooker, DB Eastwood, BK Behe… – 2001 – academia.edu
Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States by OB Planting Fields Arboretum – Plant Disease, 1982 – apsnet.org
Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida by AX Niemiera – 2018 – vtechworks.lib.vt.edu