The following are some facts about butterfly bush:
1) There are several types of butterflies, but only two species have been found to cause disease outbreaks.
These are the common black swallowtail (Heteroptera: Phereoeca rubens) and the white-lipped peccary (Pterodroma pectinata). Both species feed on many different plants including flowers, fruits, roots and tubers.
They both live in tropical and subtropical regions.
2) The common black swallowtail feeds on various kinds of flowers such as sunflowers, dahlias, lilies, roses, carnations and others.
The white-lipped peccary eats mostly fruits like bananas, papayas and other citrus fruits. Both species lay their eggs on infected plant parts or soil.
3) The white-lipped peccary lays its eggs on the underside of leaves.
The larvae hatch into maggots within one week after hatching. Maggots feed on the plant tissue and eventually die due to dehydration or starvation.
4) Black swallowtails and white-lipped peccaries feed on different kinds of insects which include aphids, caterpillars, scale insects, beetles, spiders and millipedes.
These species are important because they keep the population of potential disease-carrying insects low.
5) There is no exact way to tell if a plant is infected with a butterfly-born virus.
It is recommended that your hands are washed before and after handling each plant. Tools, such as shovels and pruning shears should be sterilized everyday.
6) The most common disease carried by butterflies and moths is the Snowball Mold.
This disease causes white, spherical fruiting bodies to grow on infected plant tissue. The infection is spread through spores that develop from the spherical fruiting bodies.
7) Fungi are asexual, which means that they don’t require another organism to reproduce.
Mold will grow on dead or dying parts of plants and fruits. Fungus can spread through the soil and infect the roots.
It can also spread through the air by means of tiny spores.
8) Many different species of insects can carry fungal spores on their feet or bodies.
These spore-carrying insects feed on the sugary nectar of flowers. They may also feed on the fruiting bodies present on infected plant tissue.
Each time that an insect lands on a plant, some fungal spores may be left behind. If these spores land in an ideal environment, they will quickly grow and infect the plant.
9) Fungal spores can stay dormant for many years.
Some species can be kept in a dried state for many years. When conditions are suitable, fungal spores will quickly infect nearby plant parts or fruits.
10) Fungi are able to digest complex organic matter such as living plant material or dead animals. Many species of fungi are able to digest wood – including that of living trees.
Fungal infections can grow slowly underneath the bark of trees. Infections may be spread from tree to tree by animals and insects that damage the bark.
11) Fungi are not considered to be plants. This is because they do not make their own food.
Instead, they digest food outside their own bodies and absorb the nutrients. This is known as a saprophytic lifestyle.
12) Many species of fungi are able to digest dead or rotting plant material. They do this by releasing special enzymes which break down complex organic molecules.
These complex organic molecules are then absorbed as simple molecules and nutrients. This process is known as hydrolysis.
13) The most common way of telling if a plant is infected with a fungal disease is by looking for white, spherical structures. These may be present on dead or dying plant tissue.
If they are present on living plant tissue, that tissue will most likely be discolored or dead as well.
14) The most common way of preventing fungal diseases in your garden is by ensuring that your soil has excellent drainage. Fungi need a lot of moisture in order to thrive.
15) Fungal diseases that infect crops are most common in the later stages of plant growth. It is at this point that the plants are at their most vulnerable.
This is because they do not have the resources needed to fight off an infection.
16) Fungal diseases are most common during times of high humidity and rainfall. At these times, fungi grow and spread very quickly.
17) Most fungal diseases are spread from plant to plant by insects and water. It is rare for humans to spread fungal diseases from plant to plant.
18) Fungal diseases are often too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope. A very skilled eye can sometimes spot the fruiting bodies present on infected plants.
Fruiting bodies are very distinctive in appearance and they differ between species of fungus.
19) Fungal diseases are most commonly seen during the wet and rainy seasons.
20) There are more than 30,000 known species of fungi. These species have different life strategies which help them to survive in different environments.
Most species of fungi can reproduce both sexually and a- sexually. This means that they can produce offspring by means of spores or from a single cell.
21) Fungi are a popular foodstuff. Some species are eaten – such as the common mushroom.
Other species of fungi are used to make bread rise. This is because fungi produce substances known as enzymes which allow the yeast in bread to ferment and multiply.
22) Fungal diseases are usually named after the order they belong to.
23) Some species of fungi have been around for a very long time. Fossil records show that certain species of fungi have existed for more than 400 million years.
This makes them one of the oldest living organisms on earth. They also outlive most other plants and animals.
24) Most species of fungi are not plants and so they do not make their own food. Fungi are what is known as a heterotroph.
This means that they cannot produce their own food and must digest it from an outside source.
25) Most species of fungi make their homes on or within the bodies of other living things. Many species of fungi grow and spread between the roots of plants.
These fungi can either help the plant or they can attack it.
26) There are some fungal diseases that are fatal to humans. These are sometimes referred to as ‘White Plague’ and they can kill within hours of infection.
There is no known cure or vaccine. Most anti-fungal drugs are not effective against these fast-acting fungal diseases.
27) Fungal diseases can grow and spread very quickly in the right conditions. It is common for some species of fungi to double their population every few hours.
28) Fungal diseases can be very difficult to control once they start spreading. Fungicides and other anti-fungal drugs can be very hard to manufacture.
They also tend to be very expensive. This means that the amount of fungicide or anti-fungal medication available is often limited. This means that it is sometimes hard to stop fungal diseases from spreading.
29) Most fungal diseases are not noticed until they have spread to a worrying degree. Due to their slow and hidden nature, they are often ignored until they cause severe problems.
30) Fungal diseases are a major problem in the post-apocalypse. Most survivors are not scientists or doctors, so they are unable to recognize the symptoms of fungal diseases.
31) It is very easy for survivors to carry fungal diseases with them on their clothes and in their skin. The humid and warm climate of the south makes it a perfect breeding ground for fungal diseases.
Fungal Disease Symptoms
It is very important for all citizens to be able to recognize the symptoms of fungal diseases. All citizens should be able to recognize the difference between a cold and a fungal disease.
It only takes a single spore to start an epidemic. All citizens have a duty to report any symptoms to medical authorities immediately.
Ignoring the symptoms of fungal diseases is NOT an option for survival.
The most common symptoms of fungal diseases are:
1) Aching muscles or joints.
2) Difficulty breathing or swallowing.
3) Chest pain or tightness.
4) Blisters or sores that won’t heal.
5) Difficulty focusing eyes.
6) Fever with nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.
7) Coughing up blood.
8) Shortness of breath.
If you experience any of these symptoms, you should report to the medical ward immediately. If you are not taken to a medical ward for treatment, then you could die!
If you know someone who has the above symptoms, you must report to the nearest medical ward. Failure to report a case of fungal disease could result in your family being executed.
Fungal Diseases of the Apocalypses
There are several types of fungal diseases that have been found in the post-apocalypse. All of these fungal diseases are different in some way.
Each has its own unique set of traits and abilities.
There are some fungal diseases that can easily be prevented or cured. There are also some fungal diseases that have no known cure.
One thing is certain, medical science has taken a major step backwards since the apocalypse.
The Apocalpyse has caused the rediscovery of some fungal diseases that were previously unknown to humanity. This is due to the fact that medical technology had advanced to a point where such diseases were no longer a threat and were no longer researched or studied.
Here is a list of the major fungal diseases found in the current era:
1) Bloatato: This is a type of fungal disease that effects the brain.
It is usually transmitted through water that has been infected by Bloatato spores. These spores grow best in water and soil that has been contaminated with animal feces.
The early symptoms of Bloatato include headaches, lack of concentration and confusion. If Bloatato is not treated, it progresses to the coughing up of blood and green mucus.
The most severe symptom of Bloatato is extreme aggressiveness and loss of fear. This makes infected animals extremely dangerous to be around.
All animals that are infected with Bloatato should be killed on sight.
2) Swamp Cancer: This is a fungal disease that grows in the skin.
Early symptoms include red patches on skin. If left untreated, Swamp Cancer grows into a large tumor that can easily be seen.
Swamp Cancer can be transmitted through animals and people coming into contact with someone or something with Swamp Cancer. It is not contagious like a virus however.
You must directly touch someone or something with the disease in order to become infected. Once infected, you will most likely die a slow and painful death…
3) Noma: This is a type of fungal disease that rots away the skin, muscles and bones of its host.
It is extremely contagious and can easily be transmitted through a small scratch.
Noma begins as small sores that appear on the skin. These sores progress into larger open wounds as the rot within the victim’s body advances.
The rot starts in the extremities, such as the arms or legs, and works its way inward. In the final stages, the rot has consumed most of the body and the victim is on the verge of death.
It is possible to surgically remove infected areas before they rot away. This often times gives the host time to receive medical treatment.
Once removed, these areas can be kept alive outside the body using sterile techniques. Extensive surgery can be used to keep victims alive when other more minor operations can’t be performed.
Noma is one of the few diseases that has no known cure. Most victims die within a week of showing symptoms.
There have been successful operations to keep the infected alive well after they’ve showed symptoms, but these patients are put into a deep coma to keep them from thrashing around during the most painful part of the operation (removal of infected areas).
4) Red Death: This disease has only recently been discovered.
It causes the skin to erupt in large pus filled boils. The boils start out as the size of peas and gradually grow to the size of tennis shoes.
The disease is extremely contagious and can be caught through prolonged contact with an infected person. The disease starts by causing extreme fever and chills, which can lead to death.
It also causes vomiting and diarrhea, which spreads the infection.
Once the boils appear, it starts a long cycle of pus-filled sores that ooze and form large scabs. Once this happens, the disease enters a dormant stage.
This stage can last anywhere from days to weeks.
If the disease is caught early enough, antibiotics can be used to kill the disease. However, once the boils appear, surgery is the only option.
Sources & references used in this article:
The Invasive Buddleja davidii (Butterfly Bush) by NG Tallent-Halsell, MS Watt – The Botanical Review, 2009 – Springer
Controlled in vitro environment for stage II micropropagation of Buddleia alternifolia (Butterfly Bush) by S Raja, I Ramya – International Journal of …, 2016 – International Journal of …
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Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank … by S Mire – Anthropology & Medicine, 2016 – Taylor & Francis
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Evaluation of persistence of selected miticides against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae by V Triolo – sites.psu.edu
World exotic diseases by RA Cloyd, CL Galle, SR Keith, KE Kemp – HortScience, 2009 – journals.ashs.org