Top 5 Tomato Plant Diseases:
1) Brown Spot Disease (BSP): BSP is a fungal infection caused by Phytophthora ramorum.
It causes brown spots on leaves and stems. Affected plants may not produce fruit at all or they may lose their ability to grow well.
Some varieties are resistant to BSP while others are susceptible. The symptoms include dark greenish-brown spots on the upper surface of leaves and stems, sometimes with small dots in them. The affected leaves will curl up and die. Symptoms usually appear first on young plants. Older plants tend to recover from the infection but may still show signs of damage such as wilting, stunted growth, and death.
2) Leaf Burn: Leaf burn is a bacterial infection caused by Bacillus thuringiensis var.
diastaticus. It affects both young and mature tomatoes, causing scorched areas where the leaves have been burned off leaving bare stems or dead leaves in between.
Leaves may turn black and fall off completely. Plants may be damaged so severely that they cannot survive and must be destroyed. The symptoms of leaf burn include wilting, yellowing, and death of leaves.
3) Early Blight: Early blight is a fungal infection caused by Alternaria solani.
It can cause severe damage to plants, fruit and leaves. The symptoms of early blight include brown spots on the leaves that start at the bottom and move upwards.
The spots have dark brown borders and are lighter in the middle. As the disease worsens, these spots merge to form larger brown areas and these may become cracked. These turn into large, dark brown areas with a grey-brown center. The leaves will wither and die as the disease advances. Fruit may also be infected; they begin to rot and can be deformed.
4) Bacterial Spot: Bacterial spot is a bacterial infection caused by Xanthomonas vesicatoria.
It causes dark brown to black spots on the leaves that start at the leaf edges and slowly spread until they almost cover the entire leaf. The spots turn dry and may have a yellow halo around them.
They usually do not cover the main vein of the leaf. The main part of the leaf may or may not be affected. Infected leaves wither and drop off.
5) Fusarium Wilt: Fusarium wilt is a fungal infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum.
It mainly affects the roots of tomato plants and can cause them to wilt and die even when they appear healthy. The plants become yellowish and may wilt completely in warm weather.
Wilting is usually most severe in the afternoon, when it can be accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor.
What method works best against these diseases?
By using proper tomato plant care, you can fight these diseases.
Tomato plant care involves; using the right type of tomato plants,planting them in fertile soil, weeding, timely watering and pesticides if required.
When you are purchasing a tomato plant always make sure that the label on the pot has a registration number on it. This means that a professional plant grower produced the plant, increasing your chances of getting a disease free tomato plant.
Follow the instructions on the labels of the pesticides and remember that you should always wash your hands after using any pesticide.
You can prevent or reduce fungal diseases by creating a healthy environment for your tomato plants. They like warmth, sunlight and water but don’t like cold winds.
Tomato wilt is caused by continuous moisture around the plant’s base, which means that it needs good drainage. Add some gravel around the base of the tomato plant if there is poor drainage.
Cut off the lower leaves, as they may be touching the water or moisture.
You may use tomato fertilizer, but at a low concentration. Tomatoes need nitrogen to produce foliage and fruit, but too much nitrogen causes thin plants with a lot of foliage and few tomatoes.
What are the benefits of tomato cultivation?
Tomatoes are high in nutrients and low in fat. They contain antioxidants, including vitamins C and E. They also have potassium and fiber content, which reduces the risk of a heart attack.
Tomatoes also help in case of diabetes, as they regulate the level of sugar in the blood by increasing the sensitivity of the body to insulin.
Tomato preparations help improve eye health as well. They prevent macular degeneration and cataracts.
Tomatoes are also low in calories. 100 g of tomatoes contain only 20 calories.
When should I harvest my tomatoes?
You can start harvesting your tomatoes when the color of their skin turns from green to a light yellow. You can also pick them when they are red, but the taste will be better if you wait until they turn yellow.
How can I keep my tomato fresh for longer?
Tomatoes don’t last long after being picked. They last for one or two days only, even in the refrigerator. One way of preserving tomatoes is to make tomato sauce or chili out of them. This can be stored in the refrigerator and consumed later.
How should I store my harvested tomato?
You can store your tomato in a cool place, if it is not ripe yet. A ripe tomato should be stored in the refrigerator.
What tools do I need to take care of the tomato plants?
You will need to get a good quality pair of gardening gloves, a trowel, a tomato rake and a tomato cage for each tomato plant. You can also make a cage yourself at home using wooden stakes and twine.
Can I grow tomatoes upside down?
You can grow tomatoes on a wall or ceiling using special planters or grow bags that are designed for this purpose. Before you start, read the instructions on the seed packet as well as the labels on the grow bag.
How do I make a simple DIY tomato cage?
Choose wood that is ¾ inch in diameter and at least three feet long. Cut the wood into four pieces of equal length. Sand the wood to smooth out the splinters and nails. Drill several holes through the wood to allow the water to drain out easily.
What are container garden and raised bed?
A container garden is a garden that grows in a container instead of open ground. A raised bed is an enclosed bed that has soil levels raised above ground level. These are a few options if you don’t have land or prefer to grow your plants indoors.
What is companion planting?
Companion planting is a method of growing plants together so that they help each other. For example, growing beans with broccoli helps keep away the Mexican bean beetle. Growing basil keeps away black flies and mosquitoes.
What is intercropping?
Intercropping is growing two or more crops in the available soil without using any fertilizer or other resources. This is a good way of getting the most out of your garden if you have limited space available.
What are the types of tomato plants?
There are three types of tomato plants: Determinate, Indeterminate and Container.
Determinate Tomato plants grow to a specific height and don’t require pruning. You can stake and trellis them.
The fruit ripens over a short period of time.
Indeterminate tomato plants keep growing and produce fruit throughout the entire season. These plants require staking and trellising.
Container tomato plants are grown in pots or containers. They are great for patios, decks or balconies.
You need to make sure that the container is big enough to support the plant as it grows.
What is the difference between a beefsteak tomato and a roma tomato?
A beefsteak tomato is a large tomato that can weigh up to one pound. It has a rich, juicy taste when ripe.
A roma tomato is also known as a plum tomato. It has a slightly acidic taste when ripe and is better for cooking.
Its skin is tough so it doesn’t need to be peeled before cooking.
What is a cherry tomato?
A cherry tomato is similar to a roma tomato in that its skin is tough and doesn’t need to be peeled. They are sweet and delicious. If you plant a cherry tomato plant, it grows into a vine that has small tomatoes on it.
What are heirloom tomatoes?
Heirloom tomatoes are open-pollinated varieties. They can be black, brown, green, yellow, orange, striped or spotted. They have a rich, unique taste than regular tomatoes. They come in all shapes, sizes and colors.
Which tomato is the best to grow?
They are all good! Pick the one that you like the best.
Is it true that some people can be allergic to tomatoes?
Yes, although it is quite rare. The protein in tomatoes is similar to the ones found in nuts and hence some people who suffer from tree-nut allergies also suffer from tomato allergies.
Sources & references used in this article:
A robust deep-learning-based detector for real-time tomato plant diseases and pests recognition by A Fuentes, S Yoon, SC Kim, DS Park – Sensors, 2017 – mdpi.com
Tomato Plant Diseases Classification Using Statistical Texture Feature and Color Feature by CS Hlaing, SMM Zaw – 2018 IEEE/ACIS 17th International …, 2018 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
Tomato plant disease classification in digital images using classification tree by H Sabrol, K Satish – 2016 International Conference on …, 2016 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
Tomato plant diseases detection system using image processing by S Adhikari, KC Saban Kumar, L Balkumari… – 1st KEC Conference …, 2018 – researchgate.net
Deep learning for tomato diseases: classification and symptoms visualization by M Brahimi, K Boukhalfa… – Applied Artificial …, 2017 – Taylor & Francis
Investigations of plant diseases in forcing house and garden by AD Selby – 1896 – kb.osu.edu
Biocontrol of tomato wilt disease by Bacillus subtilis isolates from natural environments depends on conserved genes mediating biofilm formation by Y Chen, F Yan, Y Chai, H Liu, R Kolter… – Environmental …, 2013 – Wiley Online Library
Tomato plant culture: in the field, greenhouse, and home garden by JB Jones Jr – 2007 – books.google.com