Types Of Oleander Shrubs – Different Oleander Varieties For Gardens
Olive (Viola sativa)
The olive tree is one of the most common trees in Mediterranean countries. Olive trees are native to northern Africa, but they have been cultivated throughout Europe since ancient times. The name “olive” comes from the Greek word olípē meaning “oil”. Olive trees grow in temperate climates and prefer moist soil with good drainage.
They require light shade during the day, but receive full sun at night. The leaves are opposite, flat leaflets that are up to 3 inches long and 1/2 inch wide. These leaves provide food for insects and other microorganisms that live inside the leaf blades. The olive tree produces fruit on its branches called olives or olives. The fruit consists of two large seeds enclosed in a tough skin. Olive trees need lots of water and sunlight, so they are not very productive year round. However, they do well when grown under certain conditions such as drought and high temperatures.
Dwarf Olive Tree (Viola x intermedia)
The dwarf olive tree is a small tree growing to only 5 feet tall. It has smooth green leaves that are up to 2 inches long and 1/4 inch wide. This tree is a popular ornamental plant because it has small, creamy-white flowers that bloom on the tree before leaves appear in the spring. The dwarf olive fruit color is a dark purple when ripe and it has a mild flavor.
The dwarf olives grow on small trees that do not exceed 10 feet in height. In addition to being ornamental, these trees are grown for their edible fruits. They are very common in the United States. Olive trees are often used in companion plantings with citrus trees because they have some of the same diseases such as leaf spot and powdery mildew.
Common Lilac (Viola odorata)
The common lilac is native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest China. It is now grown in many other countries like South Africa, Australia and North America. The common lilac prefers open woods, forest margins and meadows. It is a deciduous shrub growing up to 10 feet tall.
It has long, narrow leaves and clusters of purplish-blue or white flowers that bloom in the spring. It has a sweet fragrance that is strongest in the morning. The flowers give way to an abundance of berries that are dark purple when they first appear and ripen to a shiny black. The berries are edible and have a sweet flavor. The common lilac reaches a height of up to 10 feet. It has dark green, oval-shaped leaves that are smooth and shiny.
Giant Olive Tree (Vitex agnus-castus)
The giant vitex grows in the eastern Mediterranean area and it is one of the biggest species of the genus Vitex. This tree can reach heights of up to 30 feet and can live up to 200 years. The large leaves are simple and opposite. They are up to 6 inches long and 4 inches wide.
The flowers are white or lavender in color and they bloom in the summer. The fruit of the giant vitex is a fleshy berry that ripens to a deep purple when it is mature. These berries are edible and some consider them to have an almond flavor. The giant vitex is a popular ornamental plant in parks, gardens and coastal areas. It can tolerate drought, but it responds well to supplemental irrigation.
Common Fig (Ficus carica)
The common fig is native to southwest Asia, but it is now grown in many other countries. The preferred climate for this species is along the coast or in warm inland areas with a hot, dry summer. The common fig is a deciduous tree growing up to 60 feet tall. It has leathery, asymmetrical leaves and small, white flowers that bloom in the spring.
The flowers give way to edible fruits called figs. The fruit consists of a small, soft inner part called the mesocarp and a surrounding layer called the endocarp. The mesocarp and endocarp are attached to a hard, seed-like structure called the fruit stone. There are more than 500 varieties of figs that vary in their color, size, flavor and shape. Most figs grow directly from the trunk or branches of trees. The fruit is ripe when it begins to drop from the tree.
Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
The date palm is a species of palm that is native to southwest Asia. It can be found growing in desert areas like the Nile valley and the Middle East. The date palm is a tall, stately tree that can reach a height of 75 feet. It has sturdy, feather-like leaves and an elaborate seed head called a panicle.
The flowers are small and yellowish in color. The fruit is reddish-brown when it is first formed on the tree. It becomes darker and more purplish as it ripens. The fruit of the date palm is an important food source in its native regions. The fleshy mesocarp or pulp of the fruit is sweet and edible, but the stone or pit of the fruit is inedible and should be removed before eating. The date palm is also valuable for its wood. Its strong, straight trunks provide an excellent source of timber for building materials that is superior to most other trees.
Royal Poinciana Tree (Delonix regia)
The royal poinciana tree is a species of flowering tree in the delonix genus native to Madagascar. It is a tall, brightly-colored ornamental tree with large leaves and a spectacular flower arrangement. It has large, glossy green leaves that grow up to 1 foot long and 1 foot wide. The tree produces large clusters of red and yellow flowers, which bloom only briefly before giving way to a spiky, orange fruit that is poisonous to humans.
The royal poinciana tree grows best in tropical conditions with rich, well-drained soil and plenty of sunlight. It is fairly tolerant of drought conditions, but it grows best when watered regularly. The royal poinciana tree has been introduced to many other parts of the world and can be found in subtropical and warm-temperate regions. It is sometimes planted in parking lots or along streets as an ornamental tree because of its beautiful flowers and spectacular seed heads.
Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera)
The paper mulberry is a small deciduous tree that is native to eastern Asia. It has been introduced to North America and now grows there as an introduced species. The paper mulberry tree has large, broadly-spaced leaves with smooth edges. The undersides of the leaves are covered with fine, hairlike bristles called ‘pilifera’.
These hairs form a layer on the inner surface of the leaf that can be peeled off to make raw material similar to translucent paper. Paper mulberry trees are sometimes grown on plantations to produce paper for high-quality items like place mats and writing paper. The paper can also be used for more mundane things like toilet paper. Paper made from the paper mulberry does not contain any cotton, so it is more suited for people with allergies to cotton products.
Sources & references used in this article:
Phytoremediation of fluoride with garden ornamentals Nerium oleander, Portulaca oleracea, and Pogonatherum crinitum by RV Khandare, SB Desai, SS Bhujbal… – … Science and Pollution …, 2017 – Springer
Oleanders; Nerium L. and the Oleander cultivars. Series of revisions of Apocynaceae XX. by FJJ Pagen – 1987 – library.wur.nl
Plant species diversity of home gardens in El Obeid, Central Sudan by J Gebauer – Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the …, 2005 – jarts.info
The reproductive biology of a riparian Mediterranean shrub, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) by J Herrera – Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, 1991 – academic.oup.com