Boysenberry Plant Info – Tips On Growing A Boysenberry Plant
The name “boysenberry” comes from the fact that it looks like a young woman’s hair. But, its true origin is actually even older than that! The plant was first described back in 1666 by English botanist John William Draper (1609–1674).
It was named after the Dutchman Hendrikus van der Boyst (1583–1657) who discovered it in 1636.
In 1776, French botanist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1767–1832) published his famous work on plant reproduction. His book, On Plants, included an account of how certain plants reproduce their seeds. Lamarck called this process “cell division.” Lamarck’s theory was that plants use cell division to produce new seed cells.
However, Lamarck didn’t really understand what he had discovered. He thought that plants were made up of two separate parts: the vegetative part and the reproductive part. These two parts did not exist together; they existed separately.
This idea would later be known as Lamarckism and it still remains one of the most popular theories today regarding plant reproduction.
The year is 1778 and the place, Philadelphia. Many American leaders have gathered to sign a document that will change everything. It’s called the Declaration of Independence and forever severs ties with England.
But it also contains another, lesser-known clause: it splits from England’s religious authority as well. For nearly a century, England has been ruled by the powerful Anglican Church. But on July 4, 1789, the newly formed American government declares its independence from religion itself.
The Founding Fathers decide to adopt Thomas Paine’s suggestion of doing away with religious authority altogether. In Paine’s book The Age of Reason, he outlines exactly how religion corrupts societies and how it has weakened England. And two years earlier in 1767, Paine had already suggested that a new national church should be created: The First Church of Deism.
The Church of Deism would recognize a “Universal State” rather than the usual “Universal Creator.”
The definition of God has always baffled humanity. Some believe that God created everything; others believe that everything created itself; while some believe that nothing created anything at all. So in 1789, America creates a new form of government with no mention of God whatosever.
The first amendment states: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” The nation is now completely secular and religion is no longer a matter of government.
In the early 1700’s, an English botanist named Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) publishes a book about the reproduction of plants, Vegetable Mould. In it he coins the word “cells.” He explains that plants made up of tiny cells.
Grew’s work isn’t widely known in the scientific community for nearly a century.
In 1827, Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881) and Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) independently suggest that all living things are made up of cells. They coin the term “cell theory.” And soon after, the rest of the scientific community accepts it as fact.
The theory forms the foundation of a new scientific philosophy called “structuralism” or “cellular theory.” This new theory says that cell structure determines everything about an organism. This means that in order for an organism to change its form, it must gain or lose cells, or the cells themselves must change in some way.
This leads many to believe that all living things are tied together by a shared ancestry. They believe that everything evolved from the same single-celled organism. This philosophy is called evolution and it’s going to change everything.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) publishes his book Origin of the Species (1859), in which he coins the word “evolution” to describe the process by which organisms change over time. He and his contemporaries use cell theory as evidence in favor of evolution. They believe that the theory explains how life changes from one form to another.
Darwin’s book is very controversial and religious groups strongly oppose it for obvious reasons. Creationists believe that God created the world and all living things in six days, as described in the Bible. They find the idea of humans sharing a common ancestor with apes inconceivable.
Other religious groups accept cell theory but not evolution. Many of them agree that the world is ancient and changes over time. But they believe that God started everything and guided life to evolve as he saw fit.
This view, called “theistic evolution” or “evolutionary creationism” (also called “theistic evolutionism” or “progressive creationism”) is popular among many Christians.
Many other Creationists, however, believe that the Bible should be interpreted literally. They view the idea of humans evolving from apes as an insult to God.
For most of American history, few people are aware of these theories. But after the Civil War, many people move to urban areas in search of jobs. There they come into contact with the theories of Charles Darwin.
This leads to a division in America that becomes especially obvious in the 20th century.
Next, you will learn about the events that lead up to this division.
produce: a useful result
fossil fuel: a fuel, such as coal or oil, formed in the ground from the remains of dead organisms
merchant marine: boats and ships that transport cargo for different companies
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Sources & references used in this article:
Downy mildew of boysenberry and tummelberry in the UK by B McKeown – Plant pathology, 1988 – Wiley Online Library
Aetiology of dryberry disease of boysenberry in New Zealand by KG Tate – New Zealand journal of experimental agriculture, 1981 – Taylor & Francis
Heat and fungicide treatments reduce Peronospora sparsa systemic infection in boysenberry tissue culture by AMH Mudiyanselage, HJ Ridgway, M Walter… – … Journal of Plant …, 2019 – Springer