What Is Partial Sunlight?
Understanding Partial Sun Patterns
The following are some basic facts about partial sun patterns. The sun’s rays reach us through the atmosphere and then pass through our skin before reaching our eyes. The amount of time it takes for the light to travel from your hand to your face varies depending on where you live, how much cloud cover there is, and other factors.
When the sun shines directly on you, it will appear reddish or orange. That color indicates that your skin is slightly warmer than normal. If you look at someone else’s face while they’re talking, their skin may appear redder because their blood vessels have been exposed to the sun’s rays longer than yours.
If you look closely enough, you’ll see a small circle of light around your eye when the sun shines directly on it. That’s called the pupil. The pupils of your eyes are filled with blood vessels, which allow oxygen and nutrients into your brain.
A narrow band of dark tissue surrounds the outside edge of each pupil, so that only a tiny bit of light reaches the back wall of each eye. Your pupils dilate when you’re excited or surprised; they close up when you sleep or rest. The center, or iris, of each eye can also widen or shrink to let in more or less light. The dark pigment of your iris is called melanin, and you have varying amounts in your eyes, skin, and hair.
The amount of light reaching your eyes depends on whether you’re looking directly at the sun, seeing its reflection on water or ice, or looking at its image on the screen of a computer monitor. The sun is a star, and it’s always there. If you trace an imaginary line between the earth and the sun, you will close that line at one of the points in the heavens where the sun appears.
The sun moves slowly through the year on a great circle among the stars.
These are some facts about partial sun patterns. Sunlight contains heat, light, and various forms of energy. The first two you can see and feel.
The last is more difficult to sense, but you know it’s there because of the effects it has on you and the world around you. Without sunlight there would be no life on earth as we know it.
There are many different types of partial sun garden plants such as annuals, perennials, vines and bulbs. The following are some examples: Herbs such as basil, chives, mint, oregano and parsley; Flowers such as bachelor’s button, calendula, candytuft, catmint, delphinium, foxglove, geranium, lavender, monkshood, nicotiana, petunia, rudbeckia, sage, snapdragon, stock and sweet alyssum; Ferns such as broad beech fern, cinnamon fern, holly fern, lady fern, maidenhair fern, reindeer fern and wood sorrel; Grasses such as blue oat grass, bottlebrush grass, fountain grass, gulf muhly grass, needle palm grass, purple beard grass and switch grass; Herbs such as African blue basil, anise hyssop, Apple mint, apple mint, curly mint, lemon balm and pineapple mint; Vines such as Canterbury bells (Campanula medium), cardinal climber, clematis, honeysuckle, ivy (Hedera), jasmine and sweet pea (Lathyrus).
The sun is one of the nine planets that revolve around the sun, a burning ball of gases at the center of our solar system. The earth is just one of the eight planets in our solar system. The earth is the third planet from the sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets.
It has one moon. The moon orbits or circles the earth. It does not have its own light, but it is the source of the ocean’s tides due to its gravitational pull on the oceans water.
The sun is a medium-sized star located in the “solar system,” which includes the sun, the planets, their moons, and other solar bodies that travel around it. This solar system is just one of hundreds of billions in our galaxy. The sun is not a particularly big star.
Just in the Milky Way Galaxy alone, there are millions of stars that are bigger and brighter than our own. Our sun is just an average yellow star about 5 billion years old in its “golden years.”
Sunlight contains not only heat and light, but also an array of other forms of energy, such as gamma rays and X-rays. These types of energy can pass through you and the earth without harming you.
You know that the sun is a star because at night you can see it shining in the sky. The sun is a huge mass of hot, glowing gas. It is so large that more than a million earths would fit inside of it.
The sun makes light and heat that travel to the earth in eight minutes.
The earth gets its energy from the sun. If it wasn’t for the sun’s rays, the earth would be a very cold place. The sun also warms the water in the oceans, causing the water to evaporate into gas.
The sun’s energy also causes wind and storms on the earth.
These are some of things that sunlight makes happen on earth:
Life on earth could not exist without sunlight. Without it, the land would be cold and dark. There would be no growth or life.
Sunlight comes to the earth in the form of radiation or electromagnetic waves. These are types of energy that move in a wave motion. Sunlight can be seen, but not touched.
It is made up of many colors, including red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet.
“For without Your light we would never see the stars.” -Brother Sunshine
The sun is a star that gives off light and heat. It is the center of our solar system. It is so huge that 1 million earths could fit inside it.
It is made up of hot gases, mainly hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen is the lightest gas, but it is the most common in the universe.
We are all children of the sun. It gives us life. It keeps us warm.
It gives us energy in the form of light and heat. It makes life on our planet possible. Our sun is one of hundreds of billions in the Milky Way Galaxy alone. Our galaxy is just one of hundreds of billions in the universe.
There are many interesting things in space that will help you learn more about our universe. It contains billions and billions of stars, planets, comets, asteroids, meteors, and so much more. There are as many different types of objects out there as there are stars in the sky.
Space is so vast that we have only explored a very small part of what is out there.
Our universe is so vast and massive that it is almost impossible to grasp the true size of it. There is so much to learn and discover out there. Countless objects and alien worlds exist in this enormous ever-expanding universe.
How did they all come to be? How did our solar system come to be? Is there life out there? Is there other life in our own solar system?
The universe is also a very interesting place. It is constantly changing and evolving. Many objects are floating around in space; some are as big as stars and some are smaller than an atom. You can’t see most of these objects with your naked eye, but if you had special goggles you could. These objects make up the universe in which we live.
Do you know how far away the nearest star is from the earth?
It is about 4.3 light-years away. To put that into perspective, it takes light, which is the fastest thing known, about 8 minutes to get from the sun to the earth. That means if you looking at the sun right now, you are seeing it as it was eight minutes ago. Now think about that the next time you are outside on a sunny day!
You can’t see most of these objects with the naked eye. Some of them you can only see with special equipment, like a telescope. The universe is so huge and we have only explored a small part of it.
The earth is surrounded by the solar system, which consists of the sun and all of the objects that orbit it. These objects include small bodies made of rocks, gases, and ice, called asteroids, as well as planets. The inner or terrestrial planets consist of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
The outer or giant planets consist of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Beyond the giant planets lies the area known as the Kuiper belt, which is full of small icy worlds. Eventually the solar system ends at the Oort Cloud, which is a spherical area containing trillions of objects that are held in place by the gravity of the sun.
The galaxy is a huge group of stars. In fact, it is a grouping of hundreds of billions of stars. The sun is just one of those stars.
Our solar system, which is made up of the sun and the objects that orbit it, is located in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.
The earth is a very special place in the universe. It supports life as we know it, but there may be other forms of life out there too.
Our universe contains an almost incomprehensible number of objects, from the smallest subatomic particles to gargantuan giant red stars. Some of these objects can only be seen through highly specialized telescopes, some have never been seen at all.
The solar system is made up of the sun and all of the objects that orbit it. The sun contains a large percentage of the known mass in our system. Most of the rest consists of an asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter.
Beyond this are the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, as well as several moons.
Everything that exists in the universe can be placed into one of three categories: matter, energy, or empty space. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. It can be anything from an apple to a galaxy of billions of stars.
Energy on the other hand has neither mass nor occupies space. Light is one example of energy. Empty space is just that, nothing exists there.
We live on a planet that circles a medium-sized star called the sun. The sun is located about 28 thousand light years from the center of our galaxy. It is our local star or sun.
Our galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars and is called the Milky Way. There are an estimated 100 billion galaxies in the known universe.
The Earth (Fig 1)
The earth has been around for about 4.6 billion years. It is made up of three layers: the inner core, which is solid iron; the outer core, which is liquid iron; and the mantle and crust.
The mantle is made up of hot, soft rock that gets thicker as you get deeper into the planet. This layer flows very slowly, which causes the rigid, yet unstable surface to crack and change shape. This cracking creates mountains.
The flow of the mantle can also cause volcanic eruptions.
The outermost layer of the earth is the crust. It is thinner under the oceans and thicker under the continents. The thicker parts are called tectonic plates.
These plates move slowly over the mantle. Today, most of them are moving at a speed of less than 2 inches per year. Sometimes, however, these plates rub or collide with each other. This rubbing takes place at only a few points called faults. Earthquakes most often take place in these fault zones. Sometimes, the plates even slide underneath one another. When this happens, a deep channel, or trench, is formed. These trenches are called subduction zones. Volcanoes and earthquakes often occur along these zones.
There are three main types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
Igneous rocks form when magma or molten rock cools and hardens. They can also form when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground. When cooled lava from a volcano hardens, it is called “plutonic” rock.
Both types are called igneous rocks.
Sedimentary rocks form from the compression and deposition of sediment. Different types of particles eventually form certain layers. Other layers are left out as the sediment continues to be compressed.
When it becomes solid, the type of rock depends on the type of particle that composes it.
Metamorphic rocks form when igneous or sedimentary rock is put under a lot of pressure and heat, like during the formation of a mountain. When this happens the minerals change into different types of rock like shale, marble, or quartz.
Measuring the Earth (Fig 2)
The Earth has been measured from the surface of the sea to about 400 miles up, which is about as high as satellites can go. From this height, the Earth appears to be a blue planet because of the vast amount of water in our oceans. Unfortunately, the Earth also appears to be slowly getting hotter and hotter.
It is currently believed that if the average temperature gets much higher, the polar ice caps will start to melt and flood most of the coastal cities around the world. This is called global warming. It is caused mainly by city smog and the burning of fossil fuels in cars and factories.
Classifying Living Things (Fig 3)
Living things have some basic similarities. They need food, water, and oxygen to survive. They are made up of cells and reproduce offspring in a process called mitosis or meiosis.
The cells that make up plants are called plants. The cells that make up animals are called animals. The cells that make up humans are called humans.
Both plants and animals are sometimes subdivided into groups called taxa. Animals are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
All of these creatures have a spine. Invertebrates include insects, arachnids, and others without spines.
Plants are divided into two groups: monocots and dicots. The difference is that monocots have one embryonic leaf, while dicots have two.
There are about 300,000 different species of animals and 1,000,000 different species of plants on Earth. The largest group is insects with about 700,000 species including bees, ants, and butterflies. There are more than 30,000 different species of birds.
Mammals make up the largest group of vertebrates with about 4,500 species including humans, whales, and dolphins. There are more than 400 different species of reptiles including snakes, alligators, and turtles. The smallest groups are mammals with less than 200 species, birds with about 10,000 species, and amphibians and fish each with about 20,000 species.
The smallest groups are the bacteria and viruses. Viruses can only be seen with an electron microscope. They need to get inside a living cell in order to reproduce.
Bacteria are only one celled organisms and can also only be seen with an electron microscope.
Classifying the Earth (Fig 4)
The Earth is classified into several types of land, which are arranged on the continents. A continent is a large land mass or a group of connected large land masses, or sometimes a single connected mass. Each continent has a unique environment, or climate, where different plants and animals survive.
There are six different types of land on Earth: deserts, grasslands, deciduous forests, coniferous forests, taiga, and tundra.
Deserts (Fig 5)
More than one third of the world’s land mass is desert. The largest desert is the Sahara Desert in Northern Africa. The average rainfall in the Sahara is less than three inches a year.
Some areas receive no rain at all. The only living things in the Sahara are small mammals and reptiles, hardy plants, and insects that can live without water.
Grasses (Fig 6)
There are two different kinds of grassland. One is called steppe and it consists of large areas of grass mixed with bare ground. The other is called prairie and it consists of large areas of grass with only a small amount of bare ground.
Both types of grassland have fertile soil and rainfall. This encourages the growth of grass, but not trees.
Deciduous Forests (Fig 7)
A deciduous forest has four distinct seasons. Each season brings changes in the amount of sunlight, temperature, and rainfall. Leaves fall from the trees in the autumn when there is a decrease in sunlight.
This is called autumn. In spring there is an increase in sunlight and plants begin to grow again. In summer the temperature increases and in winter it decreases. When it is cold, some plants go to sleep and their growth stops until the spring.
Coniferous Forests (Fig 8)
Most coniferous forests have long, cold winters and short, cool summers. The trees are tall and straight. Some spread out their branches close to the ground.
Others, like the giant redwoods, spread their branches high above the ground. They do this to capture the maximum amount of sunlight so they can grow faster. There is little rainfall in areas with coniferous forests so these forests have few plants.
Taiga (Fig 9)
The taiga is a broad belt of forests that circles the globe just south of the Arctic Circle. Winters are very cold and very long. Summers are warming and short, but there is still some snow in September.
The trees in a taiga are very close together. They grow very slowly and live for a very long time.
Tundra (Fig 10)
The tundra is the world’s largest area of ice and snow. It is found in the far Northern Hemisphere. In the summer the top layer of snow melts to form small pools of water.
Some plants, like mosses and lichens, grow in these places. Others, like grasses, low shrubs, and small trees grow right up to the edge of the pools of water. There are no trees in the tundra.
Classifying Sea Water (Fig 11)
The oceans of the world can be classified into five groups on the basis of the salt content or salinity. The industry and trade of a country depend on the classification of sea water in which it is situated.
Oceans (Fig 12)
The word ocean comes from a Greek word meaning infinite. But no ocean is really infinite. The water from all the oceans flows together in the form of rivers.
So, in reality, the oceans are all part of one, great, global river.
The North Atlantic Ocean (Fig 13)
The North Atlantic Ocean is between North America and Europe. In the south, it is bounded by South America and in the north by Africa. The Azores archipelago lies in this ocean.
It consists of nine volcanic islands which rise 7000 meters above sea level. It is situated on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The South Atlantic Ocean (Fig 14)
The South Atlantic Ocean lies between Africa, South America, Antarctica and Australia. In the south it reaches almost to the Antarctic continent. In the north it joins with the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Leixoes Bank is an underwater plateau in this ocean. It is near the coast of Portugal and is a very important place for fishery and commerce.
The North Pacific Ocean (Fig 15)
The North Pacific Ocean lies between Asia, North America and Australia. It joins with the Arctic Ocean in the north. In the south it joins the South Pacific Ocean.
The Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Guaymas Basin are underwater plateaus in this ocean. They are important for fishery and other industries.
The South Pacific Ocean (Fig 16)
The South Pacific Ocean lies between South America and Australia. In the south it joins with the southern part of the South Atlantic Ocean. In the north it joins with the North Pacific Ocean.
The Kermadec and Tonga trenches are deep submarine valleys in this ocean. They are a result of plate subduction.
The Arctic Ocean (Fig 17)
The Arctic Ocean is the ocean surrounding the North Pole. The sea floor here is shallow and flat. It joins with the Atlantic Ocean via the Greenland Sea.
There are large underwater plateaus called the Alpha and the Lomonosov ridges in this ocean. They are mountainous and canyon-filled.
The Antarctic Ocean (Fig 18)
The Antarctic Ocean lies at the South Pole and is surrounded by the continent of Antarctica. It is permanently covered with a thick layer of ice. In this ocean there is the deepest point on earth, the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench.
It is 10 910 meters deep.
The Red Sea (Fig 19)
The Red Sea is bounded by the Arabian Peninsula on the west, and by Africa on the east. It is connected with the Indian Ocean to the south and with the Mediterranean Sea to the north via the Suez Canal. The climate of this sea is hot and arid due to its southern location but it supports a rich marine life.
The Indian Ocean (Fig 20)
The Indian Ocean is bounded by the Arabian Peninsula and Africa to the west, and by Australia to the east. It joins the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Malacca to the north. The southern part is rich in coral reefs and islands.
The northern part is deep and open. Whirlpools are common near the Madagascar coast.
The South China Sea (Fig 21)
The South China Sea is situated between Asia and Australia and bounded by the coasts of Vietnam, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. It joins the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Malacca to the north. The sea here is shallow and has many islands.
It is rich in fish resources.
The Caribbean Sea (Fig 22)
The Caribbean Sea is situated between Central and South America. It joins the North Atlantic Ocean via the Florida Straits to the north. It is shallow with many islands and is rich in resources like fish, natural gas and oil.
The Mediterranean Sea (Fig 23)
The Mediterranean Sea is bounded by Europe to the West and by Africa to the south. It joins the Atlantic Ocean via the Strait of Gibraltar to the north. It is an important passage for oil tankers from the oilfields of Arabia and Iraq.
The North Atlantic Ocean (Fig 24)
The North Atlantic Ocean is situated between North America and Europe. It joins the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait to the east and the South Atlantic Ocean to the south. In the middle there are a group of islands called the Canary Islands.
The sea here has strong currents and sailors need to be careful when navigating here.
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