Mango Trees are very popular fruit trees in India. They are grown for their sweet juicy flesh which tastes great when eaten fresh or frozen. There are many varieties of mangoes available in the market today, but they all have one thing in common – their large size and strong flavor.
The most commonly used method to grow mangoes is through grafting, where two different types of fruit develop from a single plant. Some mango varieties produce only one type of fruit while others produce both types at the same time. These fruits are called double-fruits.
Another way to grow mangoes is through propagation, where individual plants are planted together and then each plant produces its own set of fruits. This method is known as triploidy (three copies) because three sets of chromosomes develop instead of just two. Triploids can be either male or female depending on which chromosome pair develops first.
A third method to grow mangoes is through vegetative reproduction, where seeds are produced from the ovaries of one plant and fertilized eggs are released into the soil from another plant. Seeds must germinate before they will sprout, so these methods do not allow for direct planting of new plants. Instead, seedlings must be propagated by cuttings taken out of parent plants.
Cuttings may take several years to reach maturity and even longer to become commercially viable.
Mango trees can grow very tall and wide if left unchecked. It is important for maintainence that they be “topped” or have their branches cut back periodically, typically every year or two. This will allow more light to reach the lower portions of the tree, increasing the yield as well as helping to prevent disease.
The amount of growth depends on a number of factors such as climate, age of the tree and pruning methods. Younger trees tend to grow more than older trees, which may have become stunted or stopped growing all together. Mango trees can grow up to 100 feet tall, but it is rare for them to reach such a size.
A height between 40 and 60 feet is more common.
Over time the tree will develop multiple trunks coming out of the ground, which must be topped as well. Each trunk will produce its own set of branches and produce fruit. Some varieties of mango trees will only produce fruit on new growth, while others will produce fruit on both old and new growth.
The soil should be loose and fertile, but not too wet or dry. Mango trees can survive in a wide range of soil types, but work best in sandy or loamy soils. Like most plants they require water, especially when young, but shouldn’t be kept constantly moist.
It is important to add compost or fertilizer to the soil depending on the type of soil you have, but never place it directly underneath the tree as it may cause root rot over time.
It is common for both disease and insects to affect mango trees. These can include anthracnose, a type of fungus which affects the leaves, fruit and branches; termites, which typically eat the roots; and weevils, which attack the stems just below the skin of immature fruits.
The fruit is ready to pick once it comes away from the stem with just a light touch. It is not necessary to pull hard as the stem will tear, which can lead to infection. Another way to identify maturity is that you will be able to feel a slight depression or softness where the stem connects to the fruit.
In ideal conditions and with favorable care, a mango tree can produce fruit for about 20 years. It has been known to reach ages over 100.
With care, your trees should thrive and produce fruit for many years to come. The rains and sun will nurture them and the soil will provide them with nourishment. If you are vigilant in pruning, you will be able to keep your trees healthy and happy.
Soon, your farm will be known not only for its wonderful vegetables, but also for its mouth watering mangoes.
PATIENCE NOT REWARDED
Long years pass…
It has been over a decade since you planted your three mango trees and you’ve yet to taste the sweetness of their fruit. You’ve developed a strong farm and worked hard to make a living for yourself, but every year when the mango season comes you’re left disappointed. This year will be no different.
The monsoon has been particularly harsh and your fields have flooded on more than one occasion. The water table has risen to an unusual level and it seems like half your crops have been destroyed by wet roots. Your yields have decreased greatly and you don’t know if you’ll be able to make the trip to the city in order to buy more seeds.
There is also the matter of your mango trees. You planted them at the start of the year, as you do every year. You tend to them and care for them, but still they do not bear fruit.
Every year you hope that this will be the year you finally taste their sweet nectar, but so far you have been disappointed.
The ripe mangoes that you love are becoming harder and harder to come by and their prices rise every year. It may be time to consider taking more…drastic measures.
It is time to act now, before the city becomes inaccessible.
Sources & references used in this article:
Effects of pruning on flowering, yield and fruit quality in mango (Mangifera indica) by T Yeshitela, PJ Robbertse, PJC Stassen – Australian Journal of …, 2005 – CSIRO
Analysis of Critical Control Points of Post-Harvest Diseases in the Material Flow of Nam Dok Mai Mango Exported to Japan by B Matulaprungsan, C Wongs-Aree, P Penchaiya… – Agriculture, 2019 – mdpi.com
Mango powdery mildew by SC Nelson – 2008 – scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu
Estimation of whole plant photosynthetic rate of irwin mango under artificial and natural lights using a three-dimensional plant model and ray-tracing by DH Jung, JW Lee, WH Kang, IH Hwang… – International journal of …, 2018 – mdpi.com
Mite pests (Acari) in mango (Mangifera indica L.) plantations and implementation of control strategy by M Sarwar – Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2015 – files.aiscience.org
… control of Jarvis’s fruit fly, Bactrocera jarvisi (Diptera: Tephritidae), by the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in mango orchards in the … by RK Peng, K Christian – International Journal of Pest Management, 2006 – Taylor & Francis
White Mango Scale Insect’s Infestations and Its Implications in Guto Gida and Diga Distrcts of East Wellega Zone by TH Terefe, S Tsegaye, T Wakuma – ABC Research Alert, 2014 – journals.abc.us.org