Oxeye Daisy Facts:
The genus name Oxeye means “the eye” in Latin. This species is named after its white flowers which resemble those of an eye. They are found growing throughout North America from Canada to Mexico and westward into South America.
They have been used medicinally since ancient times. There are many uses for them including treating wounds, ulcers, rheumatism, asthma and even epilepsy.
There are two common varieties of oxeye daisies; the California variety (Oxycoccus californica) and the Kentucky variety (Oxycoccus virginiana). Both types produce white flowers with red centers.
California oxeye daisies are native to California, Arizona, Nevada and Utah. They are most commonly grown as ornamental plants. They make excellent houseplants and will thrive in almost any climate. Their bright colors and attractive foliage makes them popular with home gardeners.
Kentucky oxeye daisies are native to Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas and Missouri. These plants prefer full sun but they do well in partial shade or light shade if provided adequate moisture during dry periods. They do not do well in wet soil.
The plant produces large, round leaves with scalloped edges and small white flowers with petals overlapped like an eyelid. This variety tends to grow up to three feet tall with a slightly wider spread.
Oxeye daisies are often mistaken for the common daisy, Bellis perennis, which is also known as the English daisy. Both plants look very similar to one another. The oxeye daisy can be distinguished from the common daisy by its leaves, which have lopsided edges.
Because it has such a short bloom period, the oxeye daisy is often used as an annual bedding. It is popular in gardens for its long bloom period and unique foliage, which adds color after the flowers are gone. They are most commonly grown in cottage gardens. They are an absolute must for any lover of wild flowers.
How To Control Oxeye Daisies:
These plants pose a hazard to gardens due to their invasive nature and it is important to learn about how to get rid of oxeye daisies. It is always important to get rid of the roots when dealing with this species. They spread using a network of rhizomes which are difficult to locate unless you dig up the entire plant.
Once you’ve dug it up, make sure to get every root and shred of root. Be thorough when disposing of the plant. Oxeye daisies are also known to sprout from seeds that have been in the ground for more than a year. If this is the case, the only way to ensure that they do not return is through the use of a herbicide. It is important to apply a pre-emergent herbicide before planting anything new in the area.
This, of course, will kill any plants but it is the only way to be sure that oxeye daisies do not return.
Interesting Facts About The Oxeye Daisy:
The oxeye daisy is also known as the “Brunette” due to the brown spots found on the petals.
The plant produces a chemical called Trans-Oxocarveol, which repels insects.
They are referred to as “silver bells” in Wales.
In England they are known as “moon flowers” due to the crescent shape of their leaves which resemble a moon.
They are used to treat asthma, diarrhea, fever, migraine, stomach problems and sore throats.
They have been used as a substitute for opium when no other pain medication is available.
In the Victorian language of flowers, oxeye daisies represent rejection.
The petals can be eaten in salads or dried and used to make tea.
They have been known to reduce fever, treat eye ailments and help with digestive problems.
The leaves contain several chemicals that have antibiotic properties.
They are sometimes used as a dye for clothing and hair.
They were once used in the production of beer.
The oxeye daisy is the official state flower of Kansas and Wisconsin.
Noteworthy Collections Featuring The Oxeye Daisy:
Theodore Roosevelt, one of the most well-known conservationists, created the first national wildlife refuge in the United States on part of a large piece of land he purchased in Florida. The area was later added to the National Wildlife Refuge system and named the Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge.
In 1962, John F. Kennedy created the Environmental Protection Agency by executive order. The EPA is an agency that works to educate people about the environment and enforce laws designed to protect it.
The US Forest Service is a branch of the Agriculture Department that manages all of the forests in the country. They conduct research on timber harvesting, game management and insect infestations. They also build roads and maintain hiking trails for the public to enjoy.
In 1964, Lyndon Johnson created The Wilderness Act. This act and its subsequent amendments officially protect at least some part of the country’s wilderness from development.
In 1965, The National Historic Preservation Act was created. This act made it law that any project receiving federal funds must take into consideration the effects that it will have on any historic sites within its vicinity. It also created the National Register of Historic Places which helps to keep track of these sites and provide protection for them.
In 1973, the Endangered Species Act was created to protect and reproduce plants and animals who were facing extinction. This act has been the center of much controversy over the years as animals which some people consider a nuisance, such as wolves, receive the same protection as more popular creatures.
In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was established with the purpose of phasing out the use of chemicals that cause Ozone depletion. These chemicals are also potent greenhouse gasses so their use would also help reduce global warming.
In 1996, the FDA approved the use of genetically modified tomatoes in the US food supply.
In 2006, California banned cosmetics and personal care products that contain the chemicals: methyl, ethyl, butyl and propyl parabens and chloroflurocarbon 113 (113 is a specific type of chloroflurocarbon) due to their ability to interfere with the body’s hormone system. This is the first law of its kind in the US.
In 2008, The United States joined the rest of the world in creating stricter laws regarding garbage dumping in the oceans. The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 2008, also known as the Garbage Patch Bill due to the notoriety of a large area of concentrated plastic waste by that name, made it illegal to dump any sort of waste into the world’s oceans.
The Future of the Environment:
In December of 1989, The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) held a World Conference on the Environment in which they discussed problems facing the environment and possible solutions. These solutions included:
Agricultural reform to make farming more efficient and less damaging to the land while still producing enough food for an increasing world population.
Changing international business practices to make them more environmentally friendly.
Establishing new worldwide conservation organizations, creating databases to monitor the environment in a broad sense and increasing the funding and resources given to existing environmental groups.
At this point, none of these solution have been implemented on a large scale.
In 1992, The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, or UNCED, was held in Rio De Janeiro. At this point, many of the same ideas expressed at the 1989 UNESCO conference were discussed, with a greater emphasis on the role that the world’s governments needed to play in implementing the changes that would be necessary to ensure a sustainable future.
In 2002, The World Summit on Sustainable Development was held in Johannesburg. At this point, it had become clear that governmental involvement would be essential for any serious progress to be made towards ensuring a less damaging relationship between mankind and the environment. It was at this summit that the United Nations announced their plans to create an organization with a broad range of responsibilities for environmental issues. The announcement was met with criticism by many who claimed that more focus should be placed on the problems and less on the institutions created to solve them.
In 2008, The United Nations Environment Programme was established. This new organization quickly became involved in a number of activities, including monitoring important statistics such as the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The organization has been praised by many for its overall positive impact on the health of the world’s environment.
The Future of Technology:
In 2010, a company called Nanotrasen is formed by a group of scientists and researchers. The company quickly grew to become one of the most influential corporations in the world due to its focus on new research and development as well as technology.
In 2020, the first true artificial intelligence is born. A self-aware computer system eventually nicknamed “Johnny” is created by Nanotrasen. The implications of this achievement cause a great deal of controversy in the scientific community. Many believe that the creation of an artificial intelligence was irresponsible and premature, while others praise the company for its contributions to science.
In 2040, Nanotrasen creates the first sentient robot, which they name “Nanette”. The robot is able to learn and grow like a human child, and is taught everything from math to sociology. It is hoped that one day robots like “Nanette” will be able to explore space and perform tasks that would be dangerous or too tedious for humans.
In 2070, the first permanent base is created on Mars in order to exploit its vast mineral resources. The base is staffed by robots as there is still some debate about whether it’s safe to expose humans to the reduced gravity and prolonged exposure to cosmic radiation present on the planet.
By 2150, the use of robots has become commonplace in all aspects of life. Farms are fully automated, manufacturing is mostly performed by robotic devices and more and more jobs within the service industry are being taken over by robots that are cheaper and more reliable than humans. With the rise of technology, human innovation has flourished and people are able to live happier, healthier lives.
In 2200, humanity makes first contact with an alien species known as the Wasp Empire. The insect-like aliens come from a planet beyond the edge of your own solar system. The Wasps are a fearsome, warlike race that have conquered hundreds of worlds throughout the galaxy. The Wasps seem to have plans to invade and conquer yours.
In 2220, the first human explorers reach Alpha Centauri and find that another civilization has already established a foothold there. The explorers quickly realize they’re not equipped to deal with whatever is on the planet so they return to Earth to warn everyone. With this new information, a plan is set in motion to colonize the planet.
In 2230, an Alpha Centauri Outpost is finally fully operational and a mass migration of people begins. Alpha Centauri is a very Earth-like planet and is capable of sustaining human life. The only difference is that the planet rests in a binary star system with an orange sun and a purple sun. This unusual sun set is a common sight on the planet.
In 2248, humanity has finally fully recovered from the Wasp invasion. The insects were beat back by the latest in technological warfare, specifically a genetically engineered virus that targeted only the Wasp’s genetic structure. The virus killed the vast majority of the Wasps and left the rest of their species sterile. Without the ability to reproduce, their threat was eliminated.
In 2260, The Empire of Humanity is born. Created to better organize humanity’s efforts to defend itself and colonize new worlds, the Empire subsumes all sovereignty laws, replacing them with an overriding “greater good” concept of government. Contrary to popular belief, the unification of the planet was not the result of an alien invasion but rather a growing realization by humanity that they needed to be better organized if they hoped to survive in the galaxy.
Sources & references used in this article:
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The invasive weed ox-eye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.(Asteraceae): Prospects for its management in New South Wales. by AJ McConnachie, E Peach, PJ Turner… – Plant Protection …, 2015 – researchgate.net
The use of domestic goats and vinegar as municipal weed control alternatives by AL Booth, NW Skelton – Environmental Practice, 2009 – cambridge.org
The biology of Canadian weeds. 128. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. by DR Clements, DE Cole, J King… – … journal of plant science, 2004 – NRC Research Press
Evaluation of Cyphocleonus trisulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as a potential biological control agent for Leucanthemum vulgare in North America by S Stutz, HL Hinz, U Schaffner – Journal of Applied Entomology, 2020 – Wiley Online Library
Invasive Plant Management in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve by W Rapp – 2009 – researchgate.net