Types Of Peanut Plants: Learn About Different Varieties Of Peanut

Peanuts are one of the most popular foods worldwide. They have been cultivated since ancient times and they were used as food source by many civilizations throughout history. The word “peanut” comes from the Nahuatl language, which means “to eat”.

Peanuts originated in East Africa where they grew wild until European settlers brought them to North America. Peanuts are now grown commercially all over the world. There are several species of peanuts, but only three main types exist today: the tree nuts (the kernel), the oil seeds (the outer covering) and the legume seeds (the inner seed). These three kinds of peanuts differ in their flavor, texture and nutritional value.

The Tree Nut Peanuts

Tree nut peanuts belong to the family Cucurbitaceae or cucumber plant family. Their scientific name is Arachis hypogaea. All tree nuts are members of the genus Arachis.

Most trees contain at least two species of peanuts, but some may have up to five species. Trees with multiple species include the acacia tree (Acacia carica), the cedar (Cedrus spp.), the hickory (Quercus suber) and the poplar (Populus deltoides).

The tree nuts grow underground as roots, the same way most other plants grow their stems and branches above ground. They have a thick, hard shell made of dried-up earth around the seeds. The peanut plant looks very similar to the common garden pea plant.

Since peanuts are legumes, their flowers grow in clusters of small yellow, violet or red pea-like flowers called peapods. Each plant can have up to 40 pods at a time. It takes about three to four months for the tree nuts to mature and grow into their full size. Each plant only produces around 1.5 pounds of peanuts at a time, but they can produce up to three crops per year in ideal growing conditions. The tree nuts are ready to be harvested when they fall off the stem when they’re tapped lightly on the ground.

The tree nut grows wild in most parts of Africa and South America. Today, the tree nuts are widely grown in many places around the world, including in the southern United States, in Spain, in Mexico, in Argentina and in Australia. There are three main types of tree nuts: the sweet type, the Spanish type and the Virginia type.

The Sweet Peanut

The sweet peanut is the most common and popular of tree nuts. They can grow in a wide range of soil types and their roots go deep into the ground. They are often found in sandy or well-drained calcareous loamy soil that remains moist.

They need well-distributed rainfall and prefer soil types that are not prone to frost heaving.

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The Spanish Peanut

The Spanish peanut plant originated in South America, but today the crop is grown mainly in Spain, where it was introduced in the 1500’s. It is closely related to the sweet peanut and produces a similar high-quality crop. The peanut plant that produces the Spanish variety has a slightly different growth habit and flowers later in the year than the sweet type.

The Virginia Peanut

The Virginia peanut is also known as “Goober Peas” or “Goober Peanuts” and is native to North America. The plant grows mainly in the southern U.S.

states of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. It was first brought to England in 1670 and to Europe after that. It isn’t as popular as the sweet or the Spanish types, but it is one of the most drought-resistant tree nuts. The crop originated in North America and was a staple among Native Americans. Today, peanuts are used mainly for peanut butter, in the manufacture of teas, milk and coffee substitutes and in candy.

Peanuts, whether grown for eating or oil, are similar in that their nutrient needs are the same. Good soil drainage is important because the plants have shallow roots. The soil should be high in organic matter and low in magnesium.

A normal yield for an acre of peanuts is around 500 pounds, but this amount can vary greatly from year to year, depending on weather conditions.

In North America, peanuts are usually classified as vine or runner types. The runner type produces a lateral shoot that grows along the ground and produces roots of its own. The mainstalk of a runner type can reach three feet underground and produce up to ten side shoots that grow in the same manner.

The vine type does not grow a runner, but grows a long, creeping root called an “elephant’s foot” that can spread out 10 to 15 feet underground.

Peanuts are low in saturated fats and cholesterol and high in protein. They also have a high content of the antioxidant Vitamin E. Peanuts are not related to the poisonous, black alkaloid nuts known as “nightshade”, which are in the same family as tomatoes, potatoes and aubergines.

As with most oil-producing crops, peanuts are prone to a number of diseases and pests. The worst fungal disease is known as “anthracnose” and is characterized by black or dark gray spots on the leaves. It spreads quickly in wet, humid weather and can cause entire fields to become useless.

The root-knot nematode is a microscopic worm that attacks the roots of the peanut plant, causing them to swell and the plant to wilt and die. The brown rot fungus attacks the peanut pod itself, causing it to become soft and inedible. The rosette disease causes leaflets to become large and irregular and that part of the plant to wither.

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The southern corn worm, the pea aphid and the pod gnat all feed on the peanut plant itself and can quickly destroy an entire field. The corn earworm prefers to feed on already-harvested peanuts.

Insecticides and fungicides are used on peanut fields, but good farming practices are also important in keeping the crop healthy. Most American peanuts are grown in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana.

Goober peas or Goober Peanuts are actually a legume and not a nut at all! They contain no gluten and are not related to soybeans either.

Shelling peanuts is a tedious job so most people buy them already shelled. Shelling peanuts for one person takes about an hour.

The best way to store shelled peanuts is in the freezer as they can become rancid quickly if left out.

Shelled Peanuts should always be stored in refrigeration as the shelf life of peanuts on the shelf are only about 6 months.

Peanut butter is a great source of protein, folic acid, niacin, Vitamin E, magnesium and manganese. It is also quite filling. However, because it’s so high in fat (especially saturated fat), it’s probably best eaten in moderation.

Due to their high fat content, peanuts do not freeze well.

When shopping for peanuts, it’s best to buy them in the shell as this will ensure that you are getting good quality peanuts, since most of the bad ones never make it into the store. Always smell the bag for a strong peanut odor. If they smell OK, take a handful from several places in the bag and taste a few.

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If they taste OK, then they are good.

Most American peanut growers do not use pesticides and rely on good farming practices to keep their peanuts free of disease. Peanuts are one of the few crops that can be profitably grown using traditional farming methods, meaning that it doesn’t require massive government subsidies like corn, wheat and other big cash crops do.

If you love peanuts and have never tried a fresh, raw, green peanut right out of the ground, then you are really missing out! This is one of those rare treats that only comes around during the springtime.

Peanut Oil is used in preference to other oils for industrial purposes because it has a higher temperature tolerance and keeps metal parts from wearing as quickly.

The largest agricultural product in Georgia is … peanuts!

The peanut is actually a legume and not a nut. It is related to the soybean, although it is not part of the same family as beans. The peanut belongs to the same family as the pea.

Peanuts were grown in Central and South America before Columbus arrived and were probably brought over to Europe by him or one of the early Spanish explorers.

Thomas Jefferson brought the first peanuts from France to plant in Virginia. He didn’t like the taste of them and grew them just to see if they could be grown in America. It wasn’t until the mid 1800’s that peanuts became a commercial crop.

George Washington Carver did more to promote the peanut than anyone else. He came up with over three hundred different uses for the lowly peanut. One of his favorite recipes was peanut soup.

“Goober Peas” is a song written by George Gershwin in 1937 for the opera “Porgy and Bess”. In the first production, it was sung aria style by a woman (it was a romantic scene between her and Porgy). It was later sung in the 1959 film version by a man.

The song was later covered by Elvis Presley in 1962. It is one of the most popular songs associated with Elvis.

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The saying “Cross your heart and hope to die” comes from when a person was accused of a crime and before punishment (such as hanging), they would have a cross made on their chest with an X. If it landed on your heart, you were guilty and off with your head!

In closing I will leave you with a few quotes:

“Everything is funny as long as it is happening to somebody else.”

-Will Rogers

“Laughter is day and night, thunder and lightning, storm and calm.”

-Moroccan Proverb

“A sense of humor is a measurement of the size of one’s heart.”

-Dorothy Canfield Fisher

“Nothing is funnier than the truth.”

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-Marlene Dietrich

“The sight of something funny never hurt anyone.”

-Joel Chandler Harris

“There is more happiness in making others laugh than in laughing yourself.”

-Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

“A man who does not laugh is not a man.”

-Turkish Proverb

“If you’re bored with life, if you don’t get up every morning feeling that you just can’t wait to get out there and start enjoying the thrill of the hunt, or the challenge of the competitive arena, or the joy of creation, then you’re not living right.”

-John Cleese

“A wise man should have money in his head, but not in his heart.

-Jonathan Swift

“I once wanted to become an accountant, but my father convinced me that I couldn’t do arithmetic.”

-Groucho Marx

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“If you are going to achieve success, the US is the place to do it. The US is the land of dreams. America has become the destination for people who want to improve their lives.

It’s a place where people still try to accomplish things in life and are not afraid to take risks.”

-Ricardo Semler (Brazilian industrialist)

“You don’t have to be a ghost to feel ghastly.”

-Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (British physician and writer, 1859-1930)

Sometimes, I lie awake at night, and I ask, ‘Where have I gone wrong?’

Then a voice says to me, ‘This is going to take more than one night.'”

-Charles M. Schulz (1922-2000)

“The trouble with the rat race is that even if you win, you’re still a rat.”

-Lily Tomlin (American actress and comedienne, 1939-)

“When you can laugh at it, life isn’t all that serious.”

-Erma Bombeck (1927-1996)

“In heaven, all the interesting people are missing.”

-Friedrich Nietzsche (German philosopher, 1844-1900)

“If you want to upset the devil, write the truth.”

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-Oscar Wilde (Irish writer and poet, 1854-1900)

“I’m not afraid of the future; I’m just not very keen on it.”

-Charles Lamb (British essayist, 1775-1834)

“Monotony increases tenacity: you can see this in prisoners and in married people. In both cases, there is little to do; yet they stick it out.”

-Charles Lamb (British essayist, 1775-1834)

“If you don’t like the weather in England… just wait a minute.”

-Dilys Powell (British film critic and writer, 1897-1989)

“Life is a moderately good play with a badly written third act.”

-Cyril Connolly (British literary critic and writer, 1903-1974)

“Life is a sexually transmitted disease and the mortality rate is one hundred percent.”

-Camille Paglia (American social and literary critic, 1951-)

“Life isn’t about finding yourself. Life is about creating yourself.”

-George Bernard Shaw (Irish playwright and socialist, 1856-1950)

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“If you stand on a wide screen TV and crouch down, parts of your image will be missing.”

-W.C. Fields (American comedian and actor, 1880-1946)

“Life is a moderately good play with a badly written third act.”

-Cyril Connolly (British literary critic and writer, 1903-1974)

“Life is what happens to you while you’re busy making other plans.”

-John Lennon (British musician, 1940-1980)

“A celibate clergy is an impediment to good child-rearing.”

-Marilyn Monroe (American actress, 1926-1962)

“It’s a funny thing about life; if you refuse to accept anything but the best, you very often get it.”

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-W. Somerset Maugham (British writer, 1874-1965)

“Men don’t like women who sings. They like women who moan. They don’t like women who scream.

They like women who whisper.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“You’re jealous of my genius, and you wish you were as creative as I am.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“No, I’m not going to sleep with you. Not tonight, not ever. I have standards, contrary to what you might think of me.

Now, please, just leave me alone.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“If you can’t handle me at my worst, then you sure as hell don’t deserve me at my best.”

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-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“I am not meant to be tamed. I’m not some f**king delicate flower that needs watering. I am a f**king orchid.

And maybe you haven’t heard but orchids are the most beautiful blossoms on earth.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“If you can act, then act. If you can’t, then get out of the way of those who can.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“Take good care of your looks, you never know who’s falling in love with you. “

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“If I am through with life, then life is ready to be through with me.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“You knew the job was dangerous when you took it. “

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-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“No one ever told me I was pretty when I was a little girl. All little girls should be told they’re pretty, except hairy little dwarves.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“A career is wonderful, but you can’t sleep with it, or hold it next to you in bed. A career is no comfort to you when you’re old and sick. A career doesn’t get you a loving companion.”

-Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962)

“I wish I’d gotten to know my mother, but she died young and I barely remember her…remember her.

My stepmother didn’t like me, but I can’t really blame her for that, since I didn’t like her either. All women tend to dislike other women who fall in love with their husbands, and my stepmother had good reason in our case. I think my father married her just to get a hold of her fortune…her dirty money as I like to think of it, and she didn’t really love him either. I’m glad she died so that she didn’t have to live with the consequences her greed caused. I wonder what it would be like if they had all been different people, my family that is. If they were nice then my whole life would’ve been different. I wouldn’t have been able to pull off my plan, since then they would’ve just made me go to medical school or something like that. I would’ve had a different name as well. Maybe I would’ve even had a family of my own by now. But life isn’t about what could’ve been; it’s about what is and what will be. And as for what is, I need to find a way out of this mess I’m in, and as for what will be, that’s up to you.”

-Edgar J.Cobbs (Serial killer, date of birth and death unknown)

“An eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind.”

“When the going gets tough, the tough get going!”

“You can’t fix stupid”

“Don’t judge a book by its cover.”

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“Never judge a person until you have walked a mile in their shoes. By that time, you’ll be a mile away and you’ll still have their shoes.”

“Cowardice…isn’t in my vocabulary.”

-General George S. Patton Jr. (1885-1945)

“If everyone is thinking alike, then someone isn’t thinking. “

“The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other son of a b*tch die for his.”

“Americans love the instant, the here and now. We love to live with excitement and passion. For us, it’s a religion, and we will never grow tired of it…We are Americans.

This is what we do.”

“We’re not retreating. We’re advancing in a different direction.”

“Your are surrounded. You have no chance of survival. Lay down your arms and surrender now, and you will not be harmed.”

“There are only two types of soldiers: Dead ones, and those who are going to be.”

“Sure I’m afraid.

Wouldn’t you be?”

-Captain John “Black Jack” Pershing (1860-1948)

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“Only fools and foreigners swallow their medals.”

“I’m going to wipe the slate clean, then fill it full of Swedish stuff.”

-Svante Hansson (Swedish politician and diplomat, 1862-1950)

“I’m not going to say we don’t cheat, but I can say it’s a matter of honor not to cheat an enemy in war. And it’s only the English-speaking nations that accuse us of cheating.”

“There’s a lot of truth in that, you know. “If you want to know your future, just look into your past.” That’s a bit of advice a fortune teller once gave me.

Of course, she may have been a bit of a charlatan. I paid her only five whole dollars for the service. She also told me I was going to win lots of contests. Well, I guess you win some and you lose some.”

“If you go for it, you’ll never get it. But if you don’t get it you never had it anyway.”

-Billy Martin (1931-1989), American baseball manager

“We should’ve gotten two!”

Nonsense, do you think we’d need more than one atom bomb to destroy New York?”

“No! But we could’ve gotten a good deal on a second one!”

-David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), Moshe Dayan (1915-1981), and Yitzhak Navon (1918-2011)

“One moment, the air is full of flying bricks and debris, the next there’s an eerie silence broken only by the sizzle of stray electric current shorting out.”

“You know, in some ways we’re the lucky ones. At least we’ll get a chance to start anew. Those poor people who were above ground when the blasts hit, they had no chance at all.”

“Life is hard. Now, I’m not going to lie to you, it’s going to be harder before it gets easier, but I’m confident that you will all overcome this hardship and come out stronger on the other side.”

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“A platform manager has just announced that all direct and connecting trains are being stopped. This is due to the fact that all railroad personnel who are not trying to get to the Bedford Hills station are being sent there. Strange as this may seem, all trains are being stopped outside of Bedford Hills.

This means it will be easier for you to get here. So keep coming!”

“Everything is chaos here at Grand Central Station. Rumors are flying that German saboteurs have destroyed the tunnel and track beds under the Hudson River. If this is true, we could be looking at a siege of New York, as there are no other working tunnels under the river.”

“Ladies and gentlemen, I regret to inform you that Mayor La Guardia has just told us that the rumors of German sabotage are indeed true. A bomb has destroyed the tunnel and track beds under the Hudson River. This means we are cut off from the outside world.”

“We were expecting this to happen, but not quite so soon. It looks like we may be in this together after all.”

“In other news, the latest bombing raid on Germany was a success. Unfortunately, we have lost contact with the airship Columbia, and all aboard are assumed dead. Today, we remember our brave men and women in uniform and those who have given their lives for our freedom.”

A year passes…

“We now take you to the Twentieth Century Limited bound for the Big Apple. This is Ernest Whitewater speaking. I’m standing by at the bustling Grand Central Station, where it is safe to say that all roads lead to Rome.

But right now, all roads lead to New York City, the largest and most vibrant metropolis in the United States. If you’re coming from a small town or a remote village in Western Europe or even Asia, it is highly likely that you will disembark here before continuing your journey across the continent. In today’s fast-paced world, New York is as close to the center of everything as it gets. If you want to go anywhere, you go through New York.

And that’s just the way New York likes it.”

“Now, I’d like to welcome all of our new listeners who have just arrived in the city. Let me tell you a little bit about myself as well as this station. I am Ernest Whitewater, and I have the honor of introducing you to some of the most influential and powerful men in the country.

The name of this program is Men Who Hold High Places . I’ll tell you more about it after these messages.

“These men from all walks of life come from backgrounds you never could have imagined. And yet, here they are, sitting down with me to discuss what it truly means to hold a high place in this ever-changing world. My guests have been generals and politicians, industrialists and artists.

They have come from every social class and from all corners of the globe. What they all have in common is that they are all men who have held high places in their lifetimes. And now, it is my distinct honor to introduce you to some of these men.”

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A year passes…

“This just in: A German spy was shot and killed in the city last night. Though details are still sketchy, it is believed that this man was the saboteur responsible for the destruction of the Holland Tunnel several years ago. New York City has been invigorated by this news, as many have long feared a potential invasion of the city by the German Reich.

This death certainly bodes well for our future security.

We now take you to the US Open, where the city hopes that young Jimmy Fitzgerald, son of Irish immigrants, can win the Open on his hometown course. Wish him luck, everyone! That’s right, folks, he’s playing the famous first hole at Yonkers Golf Club.”

Four years pass…

“This just in: After a long illness, King George V has died. His eldest son Albert will succeed him to the throne. Though a German by birth, Albert became a British citizen in preparation for his future role as king.

May he lead the nation well in these trying times.

Our condolences to our listeners of Irish descent.”

Nine years pass…

“This just in: John F. Kennedy, the recently elected president of the United States, has been assassinated. Vice-president Lyndon Johnson has taken the oath of office aboard Air Force One.

We at Radio KQW promise to keep you updated on this story as it develops.

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May God bless the United States of America.”

Fourteen years pass…

The whine of airplane engines jars you from your thoughts. You watch the planes land and take off, while your driver waits patiently for you to wake up.

The sun is setting, casting an ominous red glow over the airport. A cool wind blows through your hair as you step out of the car. The driver stays behind in the parking lot, waiting for your return.

You approach the terminal. Above the door, large green letters announce TO ARPT . You walk through the doors and find yourself in a huge room with shops on both sides.

Continuing straight ahead, you come to a set of escalators that lead up to the next floor. You take the escalator two steps at a time and find yourself in a huge room filled with people hurrying about their business. Men in uniform walk among the crowd, bustling about their tasks.

You look around for signs pointing to your gate or to baggage claim, or anything else that might indicate where you should go. There are so many signs that you become overwhelmed.

Which one leads to your gate?

You don’t know. You’re going to have to ask for directions.

» Ask an employee for directions.

» Ask a fellow passenger for directions.

You walk up to an employee nearby and ask, “Where is Gate 21?”

The employee replies curtly, “All gates are located on the right side of the terminal.” With that, she walks away from you.

You do as you’re told and head over to the right side of the airport. All the gates are clearly numbered, so it doesn’t take you long to find Gate 21. You stand in line behind a few other people waiting to check in.

When it’s your turn, you hand your ticket to the agent.

“Hello,” she says with a smile that doesn’t quite reach her eyes. “

How are you today?”

You ignore her pleasantry and ask, “Do you have any items for me?”

Her smile disappears as she types away at the keyboard. The smile is replaced by a look of confusion as she says, “Let me check… Just a moment.”

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You watch her face closely as she searches for your name on the airline’s passenger list. After a few moments, she glances up at you and then looks back down at her screen. Her finger hovers over the keyboard and she frowns deeply.

You sense that she has found something concerning, but she isn’t sure how to tell you. You don’t give her time to speak, though. You lean forward and grab the ticket from her hands.

You quickly confirm that it is yours.

“B… B…” you stutter, moving your finger under the name on the ticket.

“Here it is.”

You look up at her again and find her staring back at you with a troubled expression. Her hands cover her mouth as she shakes her head slightly from side to side. A moment passes in silence until she finally looks up at you and speaks with a hoarse voice, “I’m very sorry for your loss.”

Loss?”

you ask, and then you feel your heart sink down to your feet. “No, that can’t be right. What… what happened?”

The agent explains that the person carrying that ticket — presumably someone close to you — died in a car crash last night on the way to the airport. The airline managed to re-route all of that person’s outgoing flights, but your ticket had already been issued and it was too late to change it. The airline managed to track you down by using security camera footage at the airport, credit card records and other means.

“I’m… I’m sorry for your loss,” the agent says again in a hushed tone.

“You can board now.”

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You stand frozen in shock as the agent and nearby passengers urge you to board the plane.

Board the plane?

You think.

What is the point of going on without that person? Why bother living at all?

You’re so overcome with grief that you barely hear the agent call your name again as you turn to walk away.

Sir?

Sir, you can’t board this plane. Please come back here.”

With your boarding pass clutched tightly in your hand, you walk towards the exit of the airport.

End of “The One Who Got Away”

Additional resource: Another short story about a regular customer at the coffee shop: “The One Who Got Away”

Sources & references used in this article:

Study of the Evolution of Cultivated Peanut through Crossability Studies among Arachis ipaënsis, A. duranensis, and A. hypogaea by AP Fávero, CE Simpson, JFM Valls, NA Vello – Crop Science, 2006 – Wiley Online Library

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers by MC Moretzsohn, EG Gouvea, PW Inglis… – Annals of …, 2013 – academic.oup.com

Biological control by Trichoderma species of Fusarium solani causing peanut brown root rot under field conditions by FG Rojo, MM Reynoso, M Ferez, SN Chulze, AM Torres – Crop protection, 2007 – Elsevier

Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachiswild species by X Liang, X Chen, Y Hong, H Liu, G Zhou, S Li, B Guo – BMC Plant Biology, 2009 – Springer

RFLP variability in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars and wild species by G Kochert, T Halward, WD Branch… – Theoretical and Applied …, 1991 – Springer

The first SSR-based genetic linkage map for cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by RK Varshney, DJ Bertioli, MC Moretzsohn… – Theoretical and Applied …, 2009 – Springer

ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens mediated saline resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogea) plants by D Saravanakumar… – Journal of Applied …, 2007 – Wiley Online Library

A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by YP Khedikar, MVC Gowda, C Sarvamangala… – Theoretical and Applied …, 2010 – Springer

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